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H. H. SPOER M. A. PH. D. (N. Y. Univ.) B. D. (Rutgers CoU.) 

Sometime Fellow of The American School of Archaeology 

and Oriental Research in Jerusalem. 



Teacher of Arabic at the Teachers' Seminary of the 
Syrisches Waisenhaus in Jerusalem. 





The present volume has grown out of a need — which I have 
abundant reason to suppose that others as well as myself have 
experienced — for some means of acquiring a knowledge of the Arabic 
dialect spoken, not only in Jerusalem, but with some slight variations, 
in the whole of Palestine, to-day. 

Such manuals as already exist in English are, for the most 
part, adapted for the Egyptian Arabic, or for the Libanese such 
as is spoken in Beirut and in the north, or for other special districts, 
and may be misleading, especially in nomenclature, to such as have 
learnt no Arabic whatever; and confusing to those who, like my- 
self, when I came into this part of the country six years ago, are 
students of the classical language only. Such manuals, moreover, 
contain many words which occur only in modern, literary Arabic, 
and which, as not belonging to the vernacular and not understood 
by the populace, have, in this volume, been carefully excluded. 

I have sought to adapt this work to the Arabic student 
interested in the dialect as such, as well as to those requiring 
the language for daily use iu Palestine ; also to the passing traveller 
seeking to make himself understood, and to understand those about 
him. In these days of multiplication of railways, hotels, and other 
conveniences of travel, when the often obtrusive dragoman is 
happily becoming less of a necessity, the demand for a practical 
phrase-book is increasingly urgent. The necessary limits of such 
a Manual obviously preclude the possibility of presenting a Grammar 
which is exhaustive, even in regard to the vernacular; it is how- 
ever hoped that it may be found to include all that is necessary 
for such practical use as has been suggested. 

The Latin script has been used throughout, in order to give 
the precise pronounciation, each word being transliterated as uttered 
in the vernacular, regardless of its form in literary Arabic from which 
there are many deviations, especially in the s sounds. The literary 

- IV - 

Arabic gives us, for example, faias "a mare" while the vernacular 
has fara§. The cojisonant t is sometimes pronounced as t, d as a, or 
s as z. These changes being characteristic of the c^i' ^quial Arabic, 
the fact of such differences is not indicated, as th nual has no 
concern but with the spoken language of to-day. It m^.^ be remarked 
that vowels are not always used consistently, especially the do sound 
and short i, which are often interchanged even in the same district. 
One may hear koblle as well as kille, himl as well as hdbml. It is 
therefore the more important that the beginner should pay attention 
to the correct pronouuciation of consonants, as well as to the placing 
of the accent, which we have indicated whenever a word occurs 
for the first time, and often, later. 

While, in regard to consonants, we have followed the trans- 
literation employed in Wright's Arabic Grammar, that of vowels 
follows no scientific system, but has been carefully adapted to 
English analogies, in view of its use by those who are not philo- 
logists, and who wish to study without a teacher. The philologist 
will have no difficulty in recognising the Arabic original. It has 
not been thought necessary to give any indication of the very short 
e or i sound, which is often all that remains, in the dialect, of 
the full vowel between two consonants, at the beginning of certain 
words, especially of Form VIII. 

In all cases when doubt as to the representation of sounds 
has arisen we have followed the practical method of submitting 
the question to educated English friends, not Arabic scholars, by 
the double process of showing the written form we suggest and 
asking '"how would you pronounce this?" and by pronouncing the 
word and asking, "how would you write this?" 

It is imperative that the learner, who wishes to read and 
write Arabic, should study the language in its own script, but the 
fact of its being usually written without vowels makes it evident, 
especially in view of the inadequacy of the Arabic vowels, that 
the differences between the literary and the vernacular, and the 
comparison of the two — which for the student is of utmost interest 
and importance — can be afforded only by careful transliteration 
into a foreign script. 

My task of acccumulating grammatical and syntactical vari- 
ations has been the work of many years and is the fruit of con- 

- V - 

tinuous observation. Though it has been my privilege to associate 
freely with Arabs of all classes in town and country, I should 
have felt less hope as to the usefulness of the result, without the 
final assistance of my friend Elias Nasrallah Haddad, teacher of 
Arabic in the Teachers' Seminary of the Syrisches Waisenhaus, 
Jerusalem, whose knowledge of the classical language has enabled 
him to appreciate changes and distinctions which might have es- 
caped even an Arab whose scholarship was less, while his intimacy 
with Palestineau and Libanese Arabic, in various dialects, has given 
him an insight into his own language, practically unattainable by 
a European however long his residence, or however profound bis 

The conversations and vocabularies to be found in the Second 
Part will, it is hoped, be useful to the traveller in his hotel, and 
also to the large and increasing number of English-speaking resi- 
dents, mainly clergy, missionaries and teachers, who, obliged to 
communicate with the people in their vernacular, have often not 
the leisure to undertake a more profound study of the language. 
It is suggested that by covering up one column, English or Arabic 
as the case may be, the conversations may also serve the student 
for exercise in translation. Care has been taken, so far as the 
exigences of illustrating rules have allowed, to employ, even in 
the grammar, such phrases as may conceivably be of use in daily life. 

The small collection of idioms, stories, rhymes and proverbs 
is intended for reading-exercise, and will, it is hoped, be in itself 
of interest to the student, as also the lists of animals and plants 
belonging to the country. The English-Arabic Vocabulary, which 
contains, besides others, all the Arabic words which occur in the 
Grammar, is intended to serve, at the same time, as an index. 

I and my collaborator have to thank Director Pastor Schneller 
and the Printing-master of the Syrisches Waisenhaus for under- 
taking the printing of this work under considerable mechanical 
difficulty, as well as that of the fact that the young printers know 
nothing of the English language. 

We would also thank Mrs. Haddad for the collection of tales 
and proverbs, and my wife for general help and encouragement, 
in a task in which there have been many unforseen difficulties. 
Feast of the Epiphany, 1909 H. H. Spoer. 

Table of Contents 

Part First 

Transliteration, of Consonants § 1 

Transliteration of Vowels . 2 

Miscellaneous Remarks 3 

The Article 4—7 


Personal, Suffixed, and Possesive 8 — 17 

Demonstrative 18 — 21 

Interrogative, 22 — 27 

Relative 28—29 

Various Pronominal Expressions, etc 30 — 36 


Cardinal Numbers 37—38 

Numbers 3—10 39 

Change of the Numeral in the Counting of Things . . 40 
Dual of the Noun instead of tnaiu, and Counting in 

Commercial Transactions 41 

Numbers 11 to 19 42 

The Noun in Connection with Numbers 43 

Cardinal Numbers treated like Adjectives 44 

Date 45 

Ordinal Numbers 46 

Cardinals serving as Ordinals 47—48 

Adverbial Phrases of Number and Time 49 

Fractions 50—51 

Fractions whose Numerator is 2 52 

Fractions whose Denominator is above 10 53 

Time 54 


vir — 

Percentage § 55 

"Double", "triple" etc 56 

"One by one" etc 57—58 

Arithmetical Signs 59 

Verbs expressing arithmetical Eelations 60 

Days of the Week 61 


List of regular Prepositions 62 

Prepositions with Suffixes 63 

ma', 'ind, la/ 64 

Prepositions followed by the Article 65 

Paradigms of Prepositions with Suffixes 66 

Use of bain 67 

Present Tense of "to have." . 68 

Past Tense of "to have". . 69 

"To be right — wrong; to owe; ought" 70 

"There is" 71 

"To be able, may, can, will" • . . . 71R. 

Lists of Compound Prepositions 72 — 73 

Adjectives formed from Prepositions 74 


Lists of Adverbs 75— 79 

"Alone" 80 

Adverbial use of baka and ad 81 


Negation of the Verb 82 

Negation of the other parts of Speech 83 

Negative Expressions 84 

"No" in answer to a Question 85 

The Negation rair. 86 

Interjections and Exlamations. 

Calling a Person 87-88 

Admiration, Surprise and Woe 89 

— YIII — 

Comparative and Superlative Degrees. 

Comparative. Paradigms § 90 — 92 

Comparative of Adjectives denoting physical Defects 

or Colours 93 

"The more ... the more" 94 

"Than" of Comparison 95 

Comparative of Inferiority. 96 

Superlative 97—98 


General Remarks 99—100 

Formation of the Perfect 101 

„ Imperfect 102 

„ Imperative 103 

„ Pres. Participle 104 

,, Past Participle 105 

„ Participles, feminine form 106 

Plural of Participles 107 

Division of the Verb 108—110 

The Strong Verb 

The Regular Strong Verb 117—115 

The Doubled Verb 116 

Verbs which have a as l^t or 2"'^ Rad 117—120 

The Weak Verb 

Verbs l^t Radical w 121—122 

Verbs l^t Radical y 123 

Verbs whose 2'^^ Radical is a 124—126 

Verbs which have a or i as 3'^^ Radical 127 

The Doubly Weak Verb 

Verb having a as l^t and 'S^^^ Radical 128 

Verbs whose l^t Rad. is w and the S''^ a . . . . 129 

Verbs whose 2""^ Rad. is w and the 3"^^ a or i. . . 130 

Verbs whose 2"^ Rad. is y and the S'"'' a or i. . . . 131 

— IX — 

Derived Forms 

Oeneral Kemarks § 132—133 

Forms II— X 134—153 

The Strong Verb of Four Radicals 154 

The Substantive 

DerivatioD 155 

Regular Feminine Singular • . . 156 

Nouns feminine in Gender, although not in Form , . 157 

Plural and Dual 158—159 

Collective nouns 160 — 161 

Adjectives formed from collective Nouns of Peoples . 16 IR 
Names of Professionals etc. formed by means of the Nisbe 162 

Nisbe used to form new Nouns 163 

Sound Plural 

Sound Plural of masculine Nouns 165 

Sound Plural of feminine Nouns 166 

Sound Plural of Nouns of four or more Radicals . . 167 

Broken Plural 

The Broken Plural 168 

Nouns of four or more Consonants 169 — 174 


Adjectives formed by means of the }\isbe .... 175 

Sound Plural of Adjectives 176 

Broken Plural of Adjectives 177 — 182 

Adjectives denoting Materials 183 

Syntactical and other Remarks 

The Noun 184—189 

Possessive Case, idafe 190 — 191 

Insertion of helping Vowel 192 

The Adjective 193 — 194 

— X — 

The Verb 

Eelatioii of the Verb to its Noun §195-197 

"Doing" or "about to do" 198—199 

"The following, the next, the coming" 200 

Participles corresponding to an English Noun or Ad- 
jective 201 

Present or Past Tenses 202 

Infinitive 203 

Imperfect Tense 204 

Pluperfect Tense . 205 

Future Tense 208 

Future Perfect 207 

Conditional Sentences 208 

Hypothetical Sentences 209 

Imperative with the Negation 2L0 

"Let us", (let ^permit) 211 

The Impersonal Form of Expression in English . , 212 

The Passive Voice 213 

Position of Adverbs and adverbial Phrases .... 214 
The Past and Future Tenses of "to have" and "to be" 215—216 

Generalisation of Interrogative Pronouns and Adverbs . 217 

The Conditional "If I am" 218 

Use of the Verb sar . .' 219 

Loss of Prefix of second Verb 220 

Diminutives 221 

Use of aboo, dbmm, ibn, bint and sahib 222 

Part Second. Page 
The Verb "to be" Present, Past and Future Tenses . 87—90 
The Verb "to have" Present Tense formed with Pre- 
positions 90 — 93 

Ditto Past and Future Tenses 93—95 

The Verbs to be, become (sar) 95 

Personal Pronouns in the Nominative and Accusative 

Cases 96—97 

Can ('know how) 97 — 9S 

Can (=to be able) 98—99 

Will, wish 99—100 

— XI — 


Possessive Pionouns and Phrases 100 — 101 

Verb with the pronominal Suffix 101 — 102 

Demonstrative Interrogative and Relative Pronouns . 102 — 104 

Self, the same 105 

Each other, some, after 106 — 107 

All, every 107—108 

Other, another, any . 108—109 

Cardinal Numerals 109 — 110 

Oidinal Numerals, Dates and Fractions Ill — 112 

Time and Percentage 112 — 113 

Prepositions 113 — 114 

To be right, to be wrong, to owe, ought 114 — 115 

Compound Prepositions, Adverbs Negations etc . . . 115 — 117 

Illustrations with rair 117 — 118 

Interjections and Exclamations 118 

Comparative and Superlative Degrees 119 — 120 

Adjectives of Materials, Phj'sical Defects and Colours 121 

Derived Forms of the Verb 122 — 125 

Verbs with four Radicals with and without the Prefix t 125 — 126 

Conversations etc. 

Inquiries as to Health etc 126 — 129 

Travel by Train 129—131 

Riding and Driving I3l — 134 

At the Hotel 135—137 

Breakfast 137-139 

Lunch 139—143 

Bedroom-Service 143 — 146 

In the Drawing Room 146 — 148 

The Kitchen 148—151 

Washing 151—153 

Sewing Room 154 — 156 

Meteorological, Phrases . 156 — 159 

Salutations, Compliments etc 159 — 163 

Stories 164—173 

Names of the Months 173 

Songs and Rhymes 173 — 178 

— XII — 

Proverbs and Sayings 178 — 181 

Idioms 181—184 

Imprecations and Curses 184 — 185 

Street Cries 185—187 

National Dishes 187—188 


Animals 189—190 

Plants and Fruits 190—192 

General 192—223 

Additions and Corrections 224 — 226 

Part First 



§ 1. Transliteration of tlie Consonants. 








> — > 









Like th in thin; in the dialect like t. 




Among the Beduwin like g in go. 



ha or hai 

Emphatic h as in ex' hausted. 



cha or chai 

Like ch in the Scotch loch. 







Like th in though; also like d. 
















Emphatic s 














A guttural for which there exists no 
equivalent in the Indo-Germanic 


May be described as a deep throat 

r preceded by a g. 

A Manual of Palestinean Arabic. 

2 — 











Deep throat k, sometimes g as in go 





Like Engl, k, sometimes like ch 
in charge 














W, U, 00. 


Like w. 


y, ee, ee, i 


Like y in yonder. 


i consouanj 

ts 1, J an 

d (S i. c. a, w (u or 00) y and i. 

are called semi-vowels* They lengthen the corresponding vowels, 
when used in connection with them, and often form diphthongs. 

§ 2. Transliteration of the Vowels. 

The Arabic lias three vowel signs, Mtha, kesra and damma 
corresponding to our a, i and ii (o). They correspond to the semi- 
vowels alef, ya and wow and form, with them, the long vowels a, 
ee and 06 and the diphthongs ow and ai {cf. § 124). 

ow is always to be pronounced like ow in "owl" and ai like at 
in "bait". 

The vowel a, without any distinguishing marks, is always 
short. It is pronounced like the a in "ashore." 

a is like a in "hand". 

a is a long vowel and is pronounced like a in "father"* 

The vowel i is always short, and pronounced like i in "in". 

i is always long, and pronounced like ?' in "wide". 

The vowel e is always short, and pronounced like e in "end". 
It is never mute, nor does it lengthen the vowel of the preceding 

ee is to be pronounced like ee in "fee". 

- 3 — 

ee is pronounced like the preceding, and represents, in most 
instances, S preceded by kesra. 

To avoid error, u is generally rendered by ob, oo or oo, 
short, medium or long, do represents \ oo ^, oo i\ 

u is used only for the conjunction "and" and is pronounced oo. 

u is to be pronounced like u in "up". 

The letters e, a or i at the end of a feminine noun are not 
actually vowels, but take the place of an original t {cf. § 163) 
which, under certain conditions, reappears. 

§ 3. Miscellaneous Remarks. 

The letter h at the end of a syllable or word must be pro- 
nounced. There are no silent letters. 

If t and h stand together they must be pronounced separately, 
likewise sch, as in the English word "eschew." 

aw must not be regarded as a diphthong, but the letters are 
to be pronounced separately. 

To distinguish the article to the eye, it is always followed 
by a hyphen e, g. el-hakeem "the doctor". 

The Arabs run the words together in all cases where a 
consonant and vowel meet. This is generally indicated by -^. 

The long syllable has always the accent. If the word has two long 
sj'llables the accent falls upon the second, e. g. kareem "generous", 
shareef "noble", ameeneen "faithful" (plur.), hakmeen "rulers". 

The accent is generally indicated by the sign ' , except in 
the case of long syllables. 

The Article. 

§ 4. The definite article is al, el or ii. The 1 of the article is 
assimilated with the 1*^ letter of the noun to which it belongs, 

if it is t, t, j, d, d, r, z, s, sh, §, d, t, S, 1, n. 

e. g. et-tajir The merchant 


The dress 

ej-jooch „ woollen cloth 


„ house 

ed-dahab „ gold 


„ opinion 

ez-zalzale „ earthquake 


„ heaven 

esh-shree'a „ Jordan 


„ picture 


- 4 — 

ed-dill The shadow et-tama' The greed 

es-sillll „ opinion el-lookme „ morsel, bite 

en-nar „ fire 

For prepositions with assimilated article cf. § 65. 

§ 5. Words which end in a vowel likewise assimilate the 
article, the vowel of the article being omitted: 

e. ^. jo(:)wa,^l-balad Inside of the village barra^l-mdeene Outside 
of the town il-bakara^^l-balda The white cow. 

§ 6. The Arabic language has no indefinite article. To ii 
render the noun indefinite, the article is simply omitted, e. g, dar % 
a house {cf. also the idafe § 191. about the omission of the article). 

§ 7. The article is also omitted before a noun with a 
pronominal suff'ix cf. § 9. Remark 1. 


Personal Pronouns ed-dameer lit\ the conscience 

§ 8. a) Separate Pronouns. 
Sing: 1 p. ana, I Plur: 1. p. nahna or ihna we 

2 „ m. int, or, inte thou 2. p. ) . 

'' . /. \ t { llltOO „ into you 

„ „ f. inti „ m. and f. J ^ 

3 „ m. hoo or hoowe he 3. p. \ hoomme 
„ „ f. hee, hiye she m. and f. J hoom orhonnethey 

These pronouns stand alone. 

e, g. hoo ameeu He is faithful hoomme fellaheen They are peasants 
int' 'afreet You are a rogue ual.ina mabsooteen We are well. 

§ 9. b) Suifixed Pronouns. 
Sing : 1 p. i Plur : 1 p. na 

2 „ m. ak 2 p. | 
„ „ f. ek m. and f. ) 

3 „ m. 3 p. 1 

' , n p r hoom, hon, or, on 

„ „ f. ha m. and f. J 

Remark 1. These pronouns do not stand alone, but are 
suffixed to the nouns to which they belong, and which do not, in 
this case, take the article. 


- 5 - 

e. g. jazmitkd'om Your ridiug-boots 'aiizitna Our goat 

mal.ibarti My inkstand meezano His scales 

halakhit Her eanings chassitho'om Their property 

Remark 2. In the sing, they take a different form when the 
noun ends in a vowel: 



i> yi 
















My cook 


Your (m.) cook 


His brother 

§ 10. The pronominal sulfix agrees with its noun in number 
and gender : 

e. g. kasart es-shoon Have you broken the plates ? 

na'am ya Seedi kaSfirthoom Yes, my master, I have broken them, 

iftah^il-bab Open the door. 

fataho He has opened it. 

§ 11. Instead of the simple pronoun, the Egyptian Construc- 
tion btr with the pronoun is frequently used, btr "possession;" 
f. bta't; plur. m. and f. bta'een. 

e. g. el-koorsi bta i My chair el-moonshar bta ak Thy saw 

el-bakara bta'ti My roll el-banatbta'eenha Her daughters 

§ 12. The idea of possession is also expressed by taba' m. 
and f. ; pi. m. and f. taba'een together with the pronoun. 
e. g. el-faras taba'i My mare; el-byar taba'eenna Our wells 

§ 13. The most common way of expressing the idea of 
possession is that of the unchangeable shait with the pronoun. 

e. g. el-ktab sliaiti My book el-waraka shaitko'om Your leaf 
el-chadim shaito His servant id-doli shaitna Oiu- government 

§ 14. Possession is expressed also by prefixing il to the 
personal pronoun. This form also serves as the dative of the 
personal pronoun: 

— 6 — 

Sing: ill 

Plur: ilna 

j ilkoom or ilko^on 


iloo or lo 
ilha „ ila 

/ ilhoom ,, ilon 

ilna breek 

We have a jar; Ut: to us is a jar 

iloo slab 

He has weapons. 

ilkot)!!! madrase? 

Have you school? 

ilon foorsa 

They have holidays. 


cf. also idafe § 191. 

§ 15. The possessive pronouns : mine, yours, ours, theirs, are 
also expressed by bta' or shait with the sutfixed pronoun. 

e. g. hoo bta'i it is miue. ho'om bta'eenko^om They are yours, 

hee sbhaitna She is ours. intoo shaithoora You are theirs. 

§ 16. The suffixed pronouns in connection with iya express 
a warning, which may be rendered by either should, - or must - beware 
iyak Take care! 

iyaki ya bint Take care ogirl! 

lyah irooh He should beware of going away, 

iyahah titkasal She should beware of being lazy. 

iyana ninsa We should beware of forgetting, 

iyako'bm tikidboo You must beware of lying, 

iyaho'om yit'achcharOO They must beware of being late. 

§ 17. If the pers. prons. are suffixed to verbs they express 
the object in the accusative. The suffix i of the 1^* pers. sing, 
becomes ni, while the verbal endings oo of the 2'^'* and S'*^ pers. 
plur. and i of the 2'^'* pers. f sing, of the perfect and imperfect 
become oo and ee, respectively, before suffixes. See the paradigms. 

a) Perfect with pronominal suffixes: 

fhimtak I have understood you (thee) (m.). 

fhimta You (m.) have „ her. 

fhimteeni „ (t) „ „ me. 

fihimna He has „ us. 

- 1 — 

filimato She has understood hini. 

fhimnakoom We have „ you (plur.\ 

fliimtooliobm You „ „ them. 

fihmooki They „ „ you (f.) 

b) Imperfect with pronominal suffixes : 

byifhamni He understands me. 

btifhamak She „ you(m.). 

btifliamha You (m.) understand her. 

btifhameeh „ (f.) „ him. 

bafhamkolDn i „ you. 

byifliamoona They „ us. 

btifliamooh You „ him. 

mnifhamkoon We „ you. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

Ism^il-ishara lit: noun of the pointing out. 

§ 18. The demonstrative pronouns are as follows: 

Sing: m. hada This Plur: hadol, or liadola These 

f. hadi 

m. hadak That hadoleek Those 

f. hadeek 

For the letter d of these pronouns cf. § 1. 

§ 19. The demonstrative pronoun is always followed by 
the article: 

e.g. hada^l-bait This house liadi^_,l-bint This girl. 

had61,_,en-naddarat These eyeglasses had61._,el-0t>hsne Thesehorses. 
hadak _,il-beer That cistern hadeek^ el-fara That mouse. 

hadoleek,^el-ro"'oslan Those gazelles hadoleek^ ed-dalyat Those vines- 

§ 20. The contraction of the dem. pron. with the following 
article is more usual, the distinction of gender and number is 
thereby effaced. We thus have 

hal-bait This house for hada^l-bait 

had-dchool This entrance for liada^^d-dchool 

has-shoon These plates „ hadol^es-slioon 

§ 21. "Here is" when followed by a personal pronoun or noun 
is, hi or hiya which is unchangeable: 

Sing: e. y. hini or hiyani Here I am. 

hiak „ hiyak „ you are 

hiyik(f.) „ hiyaki „ you are 

hioo „ hiyo „ he is 

hiha „ hiyaha ,. she is 
Plur: hina or hiyana Here we are 

hikoom „ hiyakoom „ you are 

hiboom ,, hiyahoom „ they are 

e. g. hi ed-dra" Here is the dra (s27 inch.) hi el-karrosa Here is the carnage- 
hiboom hon Here they are' hiyaha barra There she is outside. 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

adawat il-istifham 
§ 22. The regular interrogative pronouns are: 
meen who? mal, shoo (sho^o), or, aish what? i, iya (ni. f. and pi.) which? 
For the other interrogative particles cf. § 75 ff. 
e. g. meen byiji TMio comes? i no' biddik What kind do 

shoo ism hal-mara What you wish? 

is the name of this woman? iya ktab ahsan Which book is 

aish fee hon what is up . better? 

Remark: The inter, pron. ma "what?" is used only with the 
pers. pron. in connection with the preposition i. 

«. g. malak what is the matter with you? malo what is the matter with him? 

§ 23. meen is used with prepositions: 

lameen To whom? la 'iud meen To whom? 

ma' meen with whom? 'an meen Of whom? 

min meen From whom? 'ala meen cf. § 70. 

Use of 'an meen: 

'an meen hakait Of whom are you speaking? 

'an meen katabt hada in place of whom did you write this? 
"Wbose?" is rendered by meen followed by the pronoun 
referring to the noun. 

— 9 — 

e. g. bint meen hee? Whose daughter is she? lit: daughter who she? 
§ 24, Instead of shoo with prepositious, aish is preferred. 

laish, or, la aish for wliat? whj? 'an aish about what? bi aish or 

fi aish in what? with what? ma' aish with wliat? mill aish of what 

e. g. la aish hal- kooffe For what does this basket serve? 

'an aish btillki About what are you speaking? 

bi aish btiktib With what are you WTiting? 

bi aish hattait^el-leera in what did you put the lira? 

fl aish kassaito With what did you cut it? 

ma' aish cbalato With what did he mix it? 

min aish ma'mool hal-bab Of what is this door made? 

§ 25. aish? is the familiar form of na'am "please?" for, 
"I have not understood", shoo?, often used in the same sense, is 

§ 26. The fellaheen instead of i, iya use: enoo or enhoo (m), 

eni or enhi (f), eno'bm enboljm (plur.) 

e. g. i walad or enoo walad Which boy? 

iya chaime „ eni chaime Which tent? 

iya ashchas „ enlioom ashchas Which persons? 

iya barameel ,, enho'om barameel AVhich ban-els are 
farreen farreen empty? 

§ 27. A question without an interrogative pronoun is expres- 
sed by simple intonation. 
Therefore: hal-kol)rsi may mean "this chair" or ''this chair?" 

The Relative Pronoun. 

ism,__^il-mowsool lit: the connected noun 

§ 28. The relative pronoun, for all genders and numbers, 
is illi. 

e.g. er-rajo'ol illi aja The man who came, 

en-niswan illi rannoo The women who sang, 

et-talmeedilliakram m'allmo The pupil that honoured his teacher. 
el- hsan illi harab The horse which ran away. 

— 10 — 

§ 29. The rel. pron. with the pers. pron. is used for "the 
next", "the following", "the coming"; cf. also § 200. 
e. g. eKaskari illi ba'do inkatal The uext soldier was killed, 
es-sana illi ba'dha The following year. 

el-marra^j-jai The (coming) next time, 

el-fobrsa^-jai The coming holidays. 

Various Pronominal Expressions. 

§ 30. "Self", is rendered by nafs "soul"; dat "essence"; Ml 
"state, condition"; eed „hand". 

1. nafs or dat are used if self is the object of reflexive verbs or, if 
it is in apposition, when b is generally prefixed: bnafs, bdat. 

2. hal can only be used when self is the object of refl. verbs. 

3. eed can only be used when self is in apposition and a manual 
action is implied. 

e.g. el-chawaja aja bnafso or bdato The gentleman came himself. 

ana 'amilto bnafsi, or bdati or bi eedi i did it myself, 
(reflexive) il-harami sallam nafso or dato or halo la^d-dole The thief 

gave himself over to the goverment. 

§ 31. "The same" is also expressed by dat: 
e.g. er-rajool shtara dat^el-kamoos The man bought the same lexicon, 
hal-walad shaf dat daftar.^es-SOOWar This boy saw the same picture-book, 
irkibt 'ala dat el-hsan I rode the same horse, 

nimshi 'ala dat ed-darb We take the same road. 

§ 32. "Each other", often rendered by the VI Form of the 
verb, which is reciprocal, (cf. § 147) may also be expressed by ba'd 
with the pronominal sufiix, often followed by ii-bad. The verb is 
put in the 3''*^ pers. plural. 
e.g. ez-zlam biktloo ba'dhot)m The men kill each other. 

el-'askar haraboo baVlliOOn The soldiers warred with each other 

sallamoo 'ala ba'dhot)n il-ba'd They greeted each other. 
la'antOO ba'dko'bm il-ba'd You have cursed each other. 

§ 33. "A few", or "some", is rendered by ba'd, with or 
without tlie article followed by a noun: 

e. g. ba'd el-owlad Some of the boys. ba'dna Some of us. 

ba'd el-mj-allafat iksar kteer A few of these envelopes are too short. 

— 11 — 

Remark: "Some" may also be rpdered by idsm mia "part of: 

e.g. kism mia^^el-hadreen liakoo Some of those present spoke. 

kism min,^el-msafreen matoo Some of the travellers died. 

§ 34. "AH" or "every" is rendered by ko^oU "entirety": 
e.g. kooU^en-nas All the people. 

ko't)!! chiyal Every horseman. 

kolDl^ed-dinya All the world. 

ko't)!! yom Everyday. 

§ 35. "Other", "another" or "besides" is rendered by rair 
with the suffixed pronoun: 

e. g. shoo bichooss rairhoom "\Miat does it concern the others? 
meen kan rairak hon Who was there heside you? 

inba'at rair mirsal Another messenger was sent. 

§ 36. "Any" is rendered by 

a) shee (c/. § 82) 
e. g. ta'ali shee yom Come (f.) any day. 

b) hiyallah 
e. g. hiyallah hadiye btikfl Any present suffices. 

hiyallall Chadim lazim yiji Any of the servants shall come . 

Cardinal Numbers. 

§ 37. The cardinal numbers are as follows: 




arba'ta'sh or arbata'sh 












sab'ata'sh or sabata'sh 








tis'ata'sh or tisata'sh 




'islireen, or 'eshreen 


tmanye oi- 



wahad u Mshreen 






'ashra or 





hda'sli or 












— 12 — 
















elida'shar alf; 


tlat miye 


meet alf; 


arba' miye 


malyoou or milyoon 



§ 38. The card, numbers have only one form, which serves 
for both masc. and fem. gender. , 

Remark: wahad has however a recognized feminine form 
which is used in connection with fem. nouns. 
e. g. mara wahade One woman. 
rajolDl wahad One man. 

§ 39. If a noun should follow upon the numbers from 3 to 
10 the last vowel of the numeral is dropped: 

e. g. sitt dafatir (3 copy-books, chams mahabir 5 inkstands. 
taman biyoot 8 houses. sab' dakakeen 7 shops. 

§ 40. If the name of the thing counted begins with a vowel, 
a euphonical t is frequently inserted between these numerals and 
their noun: 



o izars. 
7 rottles ; 


5 loads 
4 men 

§ 41. Instead of the numeral tnain, the dual of the noun, is used : 
e.g. rajoolain Two men; waladain Two children, 

talmeedain Two pupils; mitrain Two metres 

Remark: In commercial transactions however, it is usual 
to place the word iddi "number" before the numeral and put the 
thing counted in the singular: 

e. g. kitab 'iddi tnain 2 books {lit: book, number, 2,) 

kees 'iddi chamsta'sh 15 sacks {Ut: sack, number, 15.) 

nahna tnain We are two nahna,^t-tuain We two 
entoo tnain You are two entoo^^t-tnain You two 

13 — 

§ 42. The numbers 11 to Intake the ending ar when follow- 
ed b}^ a noun: 

e. g. tamanta'shar walad is boys; 

tiatta'shar bab 13 doors; 

chamsta'shar kalb 15 dogs; 

sitta'shar kasr 16 castles; 

§ 43. The noun is put into the plural after the numbers 3 to 
10, and into the singular after all the other numbers. For 
illustrations see §§ 39. 40. 42. 44. 

Remark: The rules laid down in §§ 42. 43 apply also to 
these numbers when compounded with hundreds. 
e. g. miye ii_tlat bral 103 mules; 

mitain u^tlatta'shar mahboos 213 prisoners. 

§ 44. The cardinal numbers are treated like adjectives if the 
object numbered is a noun with ttie article; 
e. g. es-sitt bawareed The six guns. 

el-arba" fsool The four chapters, or, the four seasons. 

§ 45. A date is expressed in cardinal numbers: 
e. g. sab'a u Mshreen neesan 27th of April, 
arba'a iyar 4th of May. wahad ab i^t of August. 

Ordinal Numbers and Fractions. 

a'dad tarteebiye w^iksoor. 

§ 46. The ordinal numbers which have both a masc. and fem. 
form are as follows: 

























el-chamse ,, 

















14 — 

Masc: el-hadi 'ashar Fern: el-hadye 'ashar The eleventh 
et-tani 'ashar „ et-taiiye 'ashar The twelfth 

§ 47. The cardinal numbers, witli the article, from 10 
upwards, serve for ordinals, but in compound numbers the unit is an 
ordinal, as in English: 

e.g. el-'eshreen (m. and f.) 

el-hadi \v_^el-'eshreen (m.) 

el-hadye w_el-'eshreeu (f.) 

et-tani w_et-tlateen (m.) 

et-tanye w_et-tlateen (f.) 

el-arba°een (m. and f.) 

es-sabi' w^is-sab'een (m.) 

es-sab'a w^is-sab'een (f.) 

§ 48. The use of the cardinal number with the article, to 
express the ordinal, for the numbei'S beginning with the eleventh 
is much more frequent than the use of the ordinal number proper: 

el-wal.iad w^il-'eshreen The tweuty-first. 

et-tlati W_lt-tlateen The thirty-third. 












§ 49. We may notice, in this connection, the following' 

owwalan At first; 
owwal marra 
achir, or, acheer marra 
el-marra _ 1-ach eere 
bi_,l or fl_l-owwal 
bi 1 or fi I -acheer 

acheeran, or, ti^n-haye At last; 
For the first time. 
For the last time. 
The first time. 
The last time. 
At tae beginning. 
At the end, at last. 


§ 50. The 




























— 15 — 





















§ 51. Fractious have only one form for both genders. 

§ 52. When the numerator of the fraction is 2, it is express- 
ed by the dual: 
e. g. to'oltain Vs choomsain 75 sot)b'ain V' 

§ 53. Fractions whose denominator is higher than 10, are 
expressed by the preposition mia "from", with the card, numbers: 
e.g. arba'a min tlatta'sli */t3 tnain min _, ehda'sh ^xi 

wahad min^ehda'sh V" tlate min tna'sh 712 

§ 54. Time is expressed 

a) if under the hour by ilia "less": 

e. g. es-sa'a sab'a ilia tamanta'shar dakeeka It is 18 minutes to 7 o'clock, 
es-sa'a Sitte ilia roob' It is a quarter to 6 o'clock. 

b) if past the hour by the conjuction u "and": 

e. g. es-sa'a chamse u nooss It is half past 5 o'clock. 

es-sa'a tna'sh u sitt dakayik it is 6 minutes past 12 oc'lock. 

§ 55. Percentage is expressed by means of the phrase 
bi^l-miye Or fi^i-miye "in the hundred'': 

e.g. tnain u chams^isdas bi^l-mij-e 276% 

tlat^,itmau fi.^l-miye % 7" 

§ 56. The woids "double", "triple", etc, or "twice", "three 
times" etc. are expressed by the card, number and tak, plur. took, dual 
takain, with the prep, 'ala, sometimes shortened to 'a: 
e.g. chood^ej-janzeer 'a^takain Take the chain double. 

Choodi^l-chait "a^tlat took Take (f.) the thread triple. 
"Double" is also expressed by mijwis and imda'af: 
e.g. el-kmash 'ardo mijwis The cloth has double width. 

a'tah imda'af He gave him double. 

Remark 1. mijwis is used in the same sense as 'a^takaiu. It is 
the opposite of mifi-id "single". 

— 16 — 
Remark 2. The meaning of imda'af is "twofold" 

e. g. baddi akafik imda af I will repay your kindness twofold, 

§ 57. "One by one", "two by two" etc. may be expressed 
either by wahad wahad; tuaintoaiu; or by the insertion of the con- 
junction u between the numerals: 

wahad u wahad;. tlati u tlati. 

Instead of wahad wahad One may also say wahad ba'^d et-tani 

{lit: one after the second.) 

§ 58. Note the following expressions: 

chatra or marra once; bchatra walide or bmarra walide at 
one time ; bass marra or marra vvahde a single time- 

§ 59. Arithmetical signs are expressed by: 

wa -f-j miu or ma — ; fe:e x; 'aia -f- ; tsawi :=; 
e.g. tlate min chamse 3 from 5; chamse ilia tlate SjlessS; 
arba'a 'ala tnain 4 divided by 2. 

§ 60. I.^he verbs by which these arithmetical relations are 
expressed are: 

jama' to add; tarah subtract; kasam divide; 

darab multiply; tsawi or fadil it equals. 

The Days of the Week. 

iyam il-joom'a. 


el-ahad {lit: the first vz. day) Sunday 

et-tuain „ „ second „ „ Monday 

et-talata „ Tuesday 

el-arba'a „ Wednesday 

el-chamees „ Thursday 

el-joom'a „ the assembly Friday 

es-sabt Sabbath, Saturday. 

The word yom, day, is generally put before these names, 
e.g. y6m,^e]-ahad etc. 

— 17 — 


hroof ij-jarr lit: particles of the genitive. 
§ 62. The following are the regular prepositions: 

bi with (instrument) 'and or '^ind with 

ma" with (a person) Wara behind (of place) 

feeorfi in ko'bddam before ( „ „ ) 

la to (also sign of dative) 'ala shortened to 'a upon 

min from 11 or wa by (in oaths) 

'an from .(a place downward) janb beside, by the side of . 

bain between 

§ 63. Pronominal suffixes may be added to these prepositions. 
fee with the suffix of the I** pers. sing: is fiyi. min and 'an double 
their u before the suffixes of the 1^* pers. singular and plural. 
lii with a suffix becomes il. 'ala becomes 'alai before suffixes. 

§ 64. ma' conveys the idea of having something on the person, 
'ind „ „ „ „ „ „ in the house 

la „ „ „ „ permanent possession. 

e. g. ma'koom^el-mastara You have the ruler. 
'indi er-reeshe I have the pen. 

ilo kalb He has courage, he has the heart to do a thing. 

§ 65. The prepositions hi, fee, la, wara, 'ala, and u, w or wa 

assimilate the article, {cf. § 4). 

fee with the article is alwa3'S short, fi: e.g. fi^l-koods in Jerusalem. 

§ 66. 


Sing: I Pers. II Pers. (m.) II Pers. (f.) m Pers. (m.) IH Pers. (f.) 




















'alai ha 

fiyi ^ 










A Manual of Palestinean Arabic. 

— 18 

Plur: II Pers. (m.) 

'indua or 'iuna 






n Pers. (f.) 

Ill Pers. (m. and f.) 






§ 67. bain "between" is used in the following manner, 
hadi mas' ale bainak U baini This is a matter between you and me. 

§ 68. ma , 'iud or la in Connection with a pers. pronoun express 
the present tense of the verb "to have". 

§ 69. The past tense of "to have" is formed by adding to 
the prepositions ma', 'ind and la the verb kan: 

e.g. el-koorsi kanat 'iudkoom. You bad the chair. 

el-masari kanat ma'na. We bad the money. 

§ 70. The expressions "to be right" — "to be wrong" — "to 
owe" or "ought" (i. e. duty) are rendered by ma', la or 'ala 

e. g. el hakk ma koom. You are right {Jit : the right is with you). 

You were right. 

We are wrong? {lit: the right is against us) 
We were wrong. 
Who is wrong? 
Who is right? 

He owes us 4 francs {lit: to us against him are 4 


kan el-hakk ma'koom. 
el-hakk 'alaiua. 
kan el-hakk 'alaina. 
'alameeu el-hakk? 
ma' meen el-hakk? 
Una 'alaih arba' frankat. 

la meen 'alaihoom masari? To whom do they owe money? 
'ala meen ilak masari? Who owes you money? 
meen 'alaiha tkannis hou? Who ought to sweep here? 

§ 7l. fee expresses also the idea "there is"; ma fee or ma fish 
or fish express that of "there is not". These phrases may be equi- 
valent to our "yes" and "no", {cf. § 82). 

e. g, fee nbeed? Is there any wine? 

ma fee or ma tish or lish There is none= no. 

fee preceded by the unchangeable kan means "there was." 

— 19 — 

e.g. kan fee batteech hiloo? Were there any sweet melons? 

Remark, fee with the suffix of the pers. pron., referring to 
the verb following', may also express the idea of "to be able, may, 
can or will". 

e. g. feek tiktib ? Are you able (may, can, will,) to write ? 

feeha tirashi Can she walk? ma feeha No. (/rt: not in her) 

ma feeh yiji? May he not come? feekoom trannoo You can sino-. 

Compound Prepositions. 

§ 72. 'aia shan because of minshan foi', for the sake of 

ilia, bidoou or miu ^ada except, without bisabab on acCOUnt of 

'alayadd because Mda 'an besides 'anyadd through, by means of 

bichKoos concerning 

§ 73. The following words serve as both Prepositions and 


kabP ' 1 
in reference • l^ooner. ^^^ reference 

to place. baM P^'' to time. 


Pi (over; 
^^^ (overhead. 

taht ^^^""^^^'^ 

' \underncath, below. 

la barra( ""' "}'' kadd + pers. pron. ("' ""«='' ^'^ 

(outwards. • ' ( equally. 

shwiye or nitfe slowly, little. ri-Hd I ^^^^^^^' 

Shwi Shwi slowly, little by little. ' ( ^^'^^'■^'■ily- 

§ 74. Adjectives may be formed from most of these preposi- 
tions by adding the endings ani or aue (m.) and auiyi or anlye (f.) 

e. g. el-bait ^el-fokani The upper house. 

el-hait^el-warrani The farther wall, 

el-oda^t-tahtaniye The lower room. 

el-bab^el-barrani The outer door. 

Remark: The fem. ending serves also as common plur. ending 
in the case of all of these adjectives which end in a vowel. 

The maSC. plur. of fokani is fawakui, that of tahtaui is tahatui. 

20 — 

Adverbs and Adverbial Expressions. 

§ 75. a) 

Adverbs of p 


wain or fain 



to the right 




to the left 



raatrah ma 






la wain? 




min hon 

from here 



la honak 

to there 



min wain 


§ 76. b) 

Adverbs of time: 









min zaman 

for a long 



still, yet 


last year 

lissa ma 

not yet 

ma . . . abadan never 


as soon as 

halkait or 


-wakt or issa now 

mata ma 


d aim an 



to day 


to morrow 



kooU yom 



when, since, while 

kobll laile 


bfard marra 


'ala mahl 



at once {I 

t: upon 

that which is moving) 



'an kareeb or ba'd shwiye 
owwal^ embareh 
ba'd bookra 

soon, shortly 

the day before yesterday 

the day after to-morrow 

§ 77. 'ala mahl is always constructed with the pers. pronoun: 
e.g. rooh 'ala mahJak Walk slowly. 

Note: kablha biyom the previous day. 

'a yaddormintalltras for the sake of {lU: "upon hand" "from below head"). 

§ 78. c) Adverbs of quantity, comparison etc. 

akall min el-luzim too little badal instead of 

'as-sakt quietly balash {- bila shee) for nothing 

— 21 - 



bala hiss 









bi^zyade or fi 

bi 1-kteer 


at the most 
so much as 
how much? 
_,zyade too much 









sawa sawa 


only, enongh 

yet, also 






like, as 



miu rair hakk unjustly 

(with the comparative) much more than. 

§ 79. 4) additional adverbial expressions and conjunctions, 
amma in willa either .... or 

bhait or niin halt 

ishi . . . ishi 

min kooll bid 

u ma' had a 

fi ramshet 'aiu 





so ... as, so ,. . that, because 

partly . . partly 

assuredly, unavoidably 

in spite of, in this respect 

in a moment 

like lightning 

if (in hypothetical sentences cf. % 208.) 

then, therefore 

lakin, walakin but, yet (conditional) 
hatta, ta (rarely la) that, because 
iushallah it is to be hoped 

ma" had a nevertheless 

ma' in or wa low in though 
maslaha or yimkin perhaps 

liait kan 


kool ma 
tool ma 
u or wa, 

at any rate 

yet, no doubt 
that, whether if 
as often as 
so long as 

§ 80. "Alone" is rendered by wahd with a pronominal suftix. 
e. g. wahdi I alone, hoo walldo fi^l-oda He is alone in the room. 

§ 81. The verb baka "to remain", is also used adverbially 
in the sense of a threatening "do" or a temporal "yet, still." It is 
not conjugated. 
With a negation (baka being conjugated; it means "no more, not". 

— 22 — 

The verb 'ad "to return", may be used iu the same sense as baka: 
e. (J. koblli baka or 'ad Do tell me. 

malak baki hon Why are you still here? 

ma bakash or 'ad iseer ahsan it will (no more) not become better. 

ma bakait or 'idt tiliki You will speak no more. 


en- nafi. 

§ 82. All verbal forms, except the imperative cf. § 208, are 
put into the negative by ma or ma "not." Sometimes sh, which is 
an original ishi or shee, "thing", is suffixed to the verb; and the 
vowel immediately preceding it, is generally lengthened: (cf. also 
feesh § 71). 
e. g. ma biddnash We will not. ma tchafsh Do not fear. 

lissa ma zirnahoosh We have not yet visited him. 

ma "azamnash He has not invited us, 

§ 83. All other parts of speech are put into the negative 
form by the negation mo^osh, except when a preposition follows, iu 
which case ma is used: 

e. g. hoo moosh mabsoot He is not well. 

nahna mottsh jdo'aneen We are not hungry. 

ma loo or maloosh chanjar He has no dagger. 

ma ilha or malash chatim She has no ring. 

§ 84. Other negatives and negative expressions are: 

ma . . . abadan never willa if not lissa ma not yet 

hatta ma that not illi hatta ma or illi ma not even 

ma., .shi or wala ishi nothing ma , . . wala neither . . . nor 

mii'alaish it does not matter wala shee . . . rair nothing else 
ishi kaleel it is a small matter (in answer to an apology or thanks.) 

§ 85. '"No", in answer to a question, is la; "yes" is na'am 
ina'am or, less politely, iwa. For "I do not care," the phrases 

sitteen sane, or sitteen sane u arb'een yom are USed. 

§ 86. rair "difference, another thing", denotes the reverse 
of that which is expressed by the noun following. It corresponds 
to our prefixes un, dis, in, non, the privative «; etc. 

— 23 — 

e. g. rairormtfbsh masboot Not exact, rairormobshma'dood Uncountable, 
rair m'addab Impolite, u rair ishi And another thing sefc. 

Interjections and Exclamations. 

§ 87. A person is called by placing before the name or 
noun the particle ya "o!" used also as a nominative of address, 
ya seedi master! ya mhammed Muhammedl 

§ 88. A frequent abbreviation of ya abooi my father! ya 
o"ommi my mother! is yaba! yamma! 

A mother will often call her boy, or girl, carressingly, ya abooi, 
yaba, or yamma 

§ 89. 1) "How" expressing admiration or surprise is ren- 
dered by ma the adjective following in the comparative cf. § 90. 
e.g. ma ajmal How beautiful! . ma afdal How gracious! 

ma achyar How liberal! ma aksa How cruel! 

2) "Oh that!", expressing a wish impossible to be 
realized, is rendered by yarait {for ya lait) with the pers. prou. refer- 
ring to the one spoken of: 

e.g. ya raitO yijthid that be were diligent! 

ya raitna nikdar nrooh that we could go ! 

3) "Alas!" or "woe!" is rendered by ya wail! which 
must always be connected with either a noun or a pers. pronoun- 
e.g. yawaili! Woe is me! ya wail^el-banat! Alas, the girls! 

4) A general exclamation of surprise such as "what!" 
""well!" "really!" etc. may be rendered by ya tara {lit: "o thou who 
art seeing"; no reference to God is implied). 

e.g. ya tara byikdar yiinshi? What! can he walk? 

ya tara meen hon? Well! who is here? 

Wain^_^en- nas ya tara? Where are the people, eh? 

For Exclamations and Phrases of Courtesy see the Conversational Part. 

Comparative and Superlative Degrees. 

§ 90. The comparative is formed by the prefixing of a to 
the adjective, and the making of certain inner changes. 

— 24 — 

a) In 

cases where there is 

an ee in 

the 2°'» 

syllable it is 

shortened to 




















good ahsan 














bad, evi 

I arda 






































b) If the adjective has a long vowel in the first syllable, it i 
is omitted in the comparative: ' 

Positive Comparative 

kasi severe aksa 

rali dear, expensive aria 
Shob hot (weather) ashwab 

shatir diligent. ashtar 

Positive Comparative 
"ali his:h a'la 






§ 91. The comparative of adjectives whose 2°^ and S'^ 
radicals are alike, is formed in the following manner: {see also above) 

Positive (Comparative Positive Comparative, 

chafeef light achaff habeeb dear ahabb 

kaleel little akall sharreer evil asharr 

shdeed strong ashadd ideed new ajadd 

§ 92. 

The comparative is unchangeable as to number and 

§ 93. The comparative of adjectives, denoting physical defects 
and colours, is always formed by placing aktar min with the pron. 
suiiix after the adjective. This form may also be employed in the 
case of other adjectives: 

- 25 — 

e. g. hadi^l-wardi hami'a aktarmin hadeek This rose is redder than thatone. 
ha sail akta" aktar min saleem Hasan is more maimed in the arm than 
aua ta'ban (m.) aktar miunak i am more tired than you. [Selim. 

nal.iua ta'baueen aktar mialioom We are more tired than they. 

§ 94. Our "the more . . . the more" or the comparative 

with the article may be expressed 

1) by ko^.U ma . . . kdoll mii followed by aktar xa aktar. 

e. g. kooll ma hakaito kooll ma kisi aktar u aktar 

The more you speak with him, the severer he will become. 

kotdl ma rattaltoo kooll ma Itil aktar u aktar 
The more you sing the worse it becomes. 
kot)ll ma btitkasal kooll ma chsirt aktar u aktar 
The lazier you are the more you will lose. 

2) by ko'oll ma . . . kdoll mii aud the comparative form of the 

e. g. kooll ma ko'ont ahda kooll ma kan aliabb 'alaina 
The quieter you are, the pleasanter it will be for us. 
kooll ma kan abkar ko'bll ma kan ahsan 
The sooner the better. 

kot)ll ma sarat ish-sh^ara akbar ko"oll ma sarat atchau. 
The greater the tree becomes the thicker it becomes. 

3) by ko~bll ma . . . ko^oll ma (the first verb preferably in the 
perf. tense) the adjective being repeated and connected by ii. 

e. g. kooll ma wabbachto kooll ma sar kalbo aksa u aksa 
The more I admonish him the harder becomes his heart, 
ko'bll ma niktib kooll ma sar chattnii a'tal u a'tal 

The more we write the worse becomes our writing. 

4) by kd7;)ll ma . . . kooll ma and the positive of the adjective. 

e. g. ko^oll ma towwal ed-dawa kooll ma sar achaff 

The older the medicine becomes the weaker it becomes, 
ko^bll ma 'itik^il-mbeed kooll ma sar tiyib 
The older the wine the better it becomes. 

§ 95. The "than" of comparison is expressed by min; "more 
than" by bikteer. 
e. g. hoo akbar minni He is bigger than I. 

hee ashtar minnak She is more diligent than you. 

— 26 — 

hot)!!! as^ad minkd'om They are happier than you. 

nihna a man minkobm bikteer We are much truer than you. 
"Very", "exceedingly", must also be rendered by kteer: 
e. g. kteer iij'ih. Very good. kteer shatir Very clever. 

kteer mwaff'ir. Very ecouomical. kteer safi Exceedingly clear. 

§ 96. The comparative of inferiority is formed 

1) by akall with the noun corresponding to the adjective, but 
without the article, 

e. g. akall irtoobe Less damp. akall tawadoV Less humble, 

akall 'oomr Less old. akall joo' Less hungry. 

2) by akta' min "worse than". 

e,g, hoo akta' min^el-kooll. He is worse than all. 
meen akta' minnak? Who is worse than you? 

§ 97. The superlative is formed by prefixing the article to 
the comparative. Like the comparative it is unchangeable. 
e. g. hadol_,il-aslha_^l-allsan These are the best weapons, 

hash-shreet hoo^l-akwa niin_il-kot)ll This wire is the strongest of all. 

§ 98. Note the following expressions : 

aktar min^el-lazim Too much, too many. 

in kattarat or bi^l-kteer At the most (^/^; when it has become much). 

in kallalat or bi^l-kaleele At the least (^2#.- when it has become little). 

The Verb. 


§ 99. Everyverb has eitherthree or four consonants, in its Simple 
or Ground-form, which is the S'"^ p. m. sing.perf. called "root", radix. 

The ground-form is always given in lists of verbs with the 
translation in the infinitive, e. g. barak "to congratulate", instead 
of "he has congratulated." 

§ 100. Every verb has a perfect and an imperfect tense. 
The perfect corresponds to our perf., and the inipf. to our present, 

§ 101. The persons of the perf. are formed by adding suf- 
fixes to the root. These suffixes are: 

- 27 - 

1. Pers. 2. Pers. (m.) 2. Pers. (f.) 8. Pers. (m.) 3. Pers. (f.) 

Sing: — t — t 



— iit 

Plur: — nil 

— too 


Paradigm : 

3, pers. m. sing. 





have inflamed 

f. „ 


rim d at 


2. „ m. „ 

farash t 


f. . 



-*■ • )) 71 



3. p. m. and f, pliir. 

farash 00 



'-'• 5i n " » " 



■'■•)) 5) T) i1 ?) 



§ 102. The persons of the impf. are formed by adding suf- 
fixes and prefixes to the root of the verb. These are : 

1. Pers. 2. Pers. (m.) 2. Pers. (f.) 3. Pers. (m.) 3. Pers. (f.) 
Sing: bJi — bti . . . . bti .... i. byi or bi . . bti 

Plur: mu-ci;-u- bti .... oo byi o>' bi . . . ; oo 

The P* pers. sing, and plur., tiie 2°*^ pers. f. and 3'"'^ pers. 
m. and f. sing, have no suffixes. 
Paradigm : 

byifrish byirmad 

btifrish btirmad 

btifrish btirmad 

btifrshi btirmadi 

bafrish birmad 

byifrshoo byirmadoo 

btifrshoo btirmadoo 

mnifrish mnirmad 

Remark: All verbs with the prefix bi/i or bi/ may also ,be 
used with the prefix bi or b. 

§ 103. The imperative is formed from the impf. hj substi- 
tuting the prefix i for the prefix of the imperfect: 
e.g. byiktil he kills; Imp. iktool kill; 

2. p. m. sing. Imp. ifham understand; ookVod sit down 

f. „ „ ifhami ook'di 

2. „ plur. „ ifhamoo ookMoo 


p. m. 

f. „ 



m. „ 
f. ,1 





„ m. and f. plur, 


r> » TI 

1) 1) 


71 71 71 

1) » 

— 28 — 

§ 104. The present participle is formed by inserting an a 
after the 1^* radical, and an i between the 2''^ and S'*^. 

e. g. katil killing; fatih openiug; sami' heariug; hafir digging; 

§ 105. The past participle is formed b}- prefixing- m to the 
verb and inserting oo between the 2°<^ and 3*''' radicals. 
e. g. maktool killed; maftooh opened; maktoob written; makbool accepted: 

§ 106. The feminine of the participles is formed by adding 
the syllable a or e to the masc. form. The second syllable of the 
pres. part, is shortened also. 
e. g. farsha spreading (f.) maftoolia (opened (f.) kadha boring (f.) 

mabsoota satisfied (f.) sakne dwelling (f.) majrooha cut (f.) 

§ 107. The plur. ending is the same for both genders, een: 
e. g. sakneen; mabsobteeu; mahrooteeu cf. § 165. 2. 

The Verb. 


§ 108. The Arabic Language has two kinds of verbs: 
I) the Strong Verb II) the Weak Verb. 

§ 109. The "Strong Verb" is divided into three classes: 
A) the regular Strong Verb B) the Doubled Verb 
C) Verbs which have a {- "'s) as P* oi- 2"^^ radical. 

§ 110. The "Weak Verb" is divided into four classes: 
A) Verbs I''* rad. w or y B) Verbs 2^"^ rad. w or y 
C) Verbs S'"'* rad. w or y (a) D) Verbs which have two or three 
weak radicals and are therefore called "doubly" or "trebly" weak. 

I. The Strong Verb. 

al-fi'l is-salim lit the sound verb. 

A. The Regular Strong Verb. 

§ 111. This is so called because its radicals are not semi- 
vowels (a, w or y) and because it shows none of the characteristics 
mentioned under B and C. 

— 29 — 

§ 112. The "Eeg. Strong Verbs" are divided into two 

classes having iu the perfect 
1) the vowels a 

2) the vowels /. 

§ 113. The verbs of the 1'* class may take iu the impf. the 
following vowels: 

1) i i 

e. g. kasam*) divide Impf. byiksim, kadab or kazab lie impf. byikzib 
kasar break 'ajan knead farak separate 

sharak rise (sun) jalas sit kalab turn (page) 

rasal wash sarak steal halab milk 

kashaf uncover nakar deny, lie chasam subtract 

dafan bury falat let loose 'akad make a knot, arch 

kabas preserve (fruit) search (house) jabal mix (liquid with solid) 

2) When the P* rad. is a guttural, h, h, ch or '' the vowel 
of the V^ syllable will be a aud that of the 2°'' i. 

chat am 

dig Impf. 










e. g. hafar dig Impf byahtir liamal 





3) When the 2°^ or S"""^ rad. is a guttural, the vowel of 
the P^ syllable will be i and that of the 2""^ a. 
e. g. masah wipe lmp>f. byimsah sahar appear impf. byishar 

carry Impf. byalimil 
'adar excuse 
'alak chew 

liabas arrest 
'azal depose. 








wipe Im2}f. 





be ignorant 


kadah bore 
bala swallow 

dabah slaughter 
bachash pierce 
nadah call 

nachaz prik, goad 

4) The following verbs, which have no gutturals are con- 
jugated like those given under No. 3. There are only a few verbs 
of this kind. e. g. sabak overtake Impf. byisbak 

fatar breakfiist basar see 

Note: basar el-bacht reveal the future. 



shah ad 

bear witness 


slit open 


urge on 


pull, drag 


subdue, oppress. 

*) As the accent is always on the 1st syllable of the Verb iu the 3 p. m. 
<ing. perf., it is not necessary to continue to indicate it in the columns of verbs. 

— 30 — 

00 .... 00 


ka'ad sit Impf. byobk'd'od dachal 
labat kick out, kick cliabaz bake 

chatab betroth 

nafach blow 

farash spread 

barab flee 

kasad intend 

talab ask, request 

katab write 

Cbalas finish 

barad hate 

sa'al cough 

rakad leap 

tabach cook 

ratas fl dive 

laham solder 

enter Impf. byoodchd'ol ) 
rafas kick (horse) 
darab beat 
sabar dye 
fasad bleed 
rakad precipitate, settle 
tarak forsake 
farat unstich, pick (fruit) 

chabat beat 

nidim repent 

till' go out 

yiblS become dry 

dil.lik laugh 

kirif loathe 

ribih win 

rikib ride 

tibf perish 

§ 114. The verbs of the 2'^'^ class may take ia the impf. 
the foil owing vowels: * 

1) i a 

e. g. sihir watch hnpf. byisbar kifil give security Impf. byikfal 

kibil accept kisib acquire, gain "'^""'"^ — —* ■ 

fillim understand luMb play 

flrill rejoice sfib be difficult 

fitin remember lihik fcdiow 

ridib be angry dibil wither 

lil.lis lick zHl be angry 

firir be empty shirib drink 

Shihid testify fidil remain 

2) When the 1'* radical is a guttural both vowels are a: 
e. g. 'irif know Impf. bya'raf hilim dream Impf. byahlam 

hizir guess Hlim know hizin be sad 'irik sweat 

hidir be present 'idim suffer loss 

§ 115. Only a few verbs of the 2"^'^ class retain the i 
vowel in the 2"^^ syllable of the imperfect: 
e.g. nizil descend Impf. byinziP: 

misik catch libis dress filit* become loose kidir* be able 

B. The Doubled Verb. 

§ 116. This is so called because the 2»'^ and S"^ rad. are 
alike. Verbs of this class have, throughout theperf., the vowel a 
or its modification. 

*) have also a as 2nd vowel in the imperfect 


— 31 

Before endings which begin with a consonant, ai is inserted; 
this syllable is always long. 


3. p. m. sing, 

2. „ m. „ 





to show 1 , 

\ plur. 

The vowel of the impf. is either i or o"o 

3. p. m. sing. 

f. „ 
2. „ m. „ 

1. „ m.&f. „ 






3. „ „ „ „pliir. bidilloo 

V V V 11 












from dakk to pound, 
to knock. 

V v n n 

The imp. is formed in the regular manner: 

2. p. m. sing. 

„ f. „ 

Pres. Part.: 
Past. Part. 





Verbs which are conjugated in the impf. tense like bidill: 

sahh recover 

saun think 

shakk doubt 

sadd close(aholej 

laff wrap up, wind 

karr confess 

dass touch, insinuate 

jann become mad 








be quiet 





liass touch, cun-y (horse) Shadd tie 

"add count lamm gather 

J add harvest olives, be industrious, happen 

Verbs which are conjugated in the impf. tense like bidook 

kabb pour out sabb pour out, dip jachch decorate oneself 

rashsh deceive shakk split liabb love 

'add hite dakk load a gun mass suck 



















tear down 


— 32 — 

put, place, 
briug back 
jump down 
Note: dakko fi_,l-liabs He has cast him into prison. 

Remark: The verb bidd is not conjugated, and is used only 
in this form with a pers. pronoun. 

biddi I wish, want, will bidna We wish, etc. 

biddak You (m.) „ „ biddkoom You „ „ 

biddik You (f.) „ „ biddhoom They „ 

biddo He wishes etc. 

biddha or bidda She „ 

Instead of this verb, rad impf, bireed {cf. § 124) ma}' be used, 
rad has also the meaning of "will (3'ou) be so good as", which bidd 
never has. 

C Verbs which have a {- \) as 1^^ or 2°^ Radical. 

§ 117. These verbs are treated in the perf. like verbs with 
three stroug radicals. 

Paradigm of a verb: l^^ rad. a. 2"^ pad. a. 

3 p. m. sing: 

achad to 


sa'al to ask 

„ f. . 

achdat or 


sa'lat or sa'alat 

2 „ m. „ 



n f. . 



1 „m.&f. „ 



3 ,, m. & f. plur. 



— ' )) » 5) )) n 
'- n n « n n 



§ 118. The impf. of verbs whose 1^* rad. is a is formed b] 

the lengthening of that letter into a; sometimes, however, iuto 6 ii 

which case the yi or i of the prefix is dropped. The vowel is o"o.| 

3, p. m. sing, byachood or bachood or bochood ] plur. byachdoo, 

„ f. „ btachood or btochood | orbachdoo 

2. „ m. „ btacho^bd etc. 1 „ btachdoo 

„ f. „ btachdi „ j 

1. „m. &f. „ bachood „ „ mnachood 


— 33 — 

§ 119. In verbs which liave 'a as 2"*^ radical no change of 
vowel takes place in the impf. tense. 
3. p. m. sing, byis'al \ ^^^^^ byis'aloo 

f. „ btis'al j 

1. „m. andf.„ bas'al „ mnis'al 

§ 120. The impf. is regular, except in the case of the verbs 
achad "to take" and akal "to eat" when it is as follows: 

2 p. 

m. sing. 


or chOd 

kool or kol 

f. „ 


„ chodi 




„ chodoo 




2 p. 

m. sing: 





f. „ 







, Part.: 




Part. : 



11 The Weak Verb. 


This is so called because one of its radicals is a semi-vowel 
i. e. w or y. 

A. Verbs which have w or y as the l*^*^ radical. 

§ 121. 1) Verbs whose P* radical is w. 

These verbs have in the perf. the vowels a . . . a or i . . i 
3. p. m. sing, wazan or wizin to weigh wisil to arrive, 
f. „ wazanat or wiznit wislat 

2. „ m, „ waziint wsilt 

f. „ wazanti wsilti 

1. „ m.&f. „ wazaut wsilt 

3. „ „ „ plur. wazJinoo wisloo 

2. „ „ „ „ wazautoo wsiltoo 
1. „ „ „ „ wazanna wsilna 

A Manual of Palestinean Arabic. 


— 34 — 

§ 122. The 1*^ radical iv is changed iu the impf. to oo, serving 
at the same time as the P' vowel of the verb, the 2°'^ being a. 
3. p. m. sing. byoozau or boozau byoosal or basal 




boozan or bozau 




f- „ 

2. „ m. „ 

f. „ 
1. ,, m.&f. ,, 

3. „ „ „ pliir. 

It I) 

11 n n 




boosal or bosai 




2 p. m. sing 

Pres. Part: 
Past. Part: 











Verbs whose 1^*^ radical is w: 

wasal arrive wirit inherit 
wa'ad promise Waja' liiirt 
wakaf stand 

waka' fall 

wafad come in sight (only of a man) 

wajad find 

wilid bear (young) wakad heat, stoke 
wa'as admonish, preach wada put down 

wisi'' be wide, contain willil sink into mire, be entrapped, "'be had" 

wihil may also be used in the following sense: 
oohilt ma' jama'a akta' min ish-shayateen 

I got into the hands of a crew worse than devils. 

The impf. of all verbs of this class may be used without the yorf\. 

§ 123. 2) Verbs whose 1®* radical is y. 

There are only two verbs of this type in the Palestineau 

Dialect: yibis to become dry; yi'is to despair. 
Perfect: Imperfect: 

3. p. m. sing. yibis beebas 

f. ,, yibsat or yibsit bteebas 

2. „ m. „ ibist bteebas 

2. p. f. sing. ibisti bteebasi 

- 35 — 

1. p. m.&f. sing, ibist beebas 
8. „ „ n ri pliir. yibsoo beebasoo 

2. „ „ „ „ „ ibistoo bteebasoo 
1. „ „ „ ,, „ ibisna mneebas 
Imperative : 

eebas (m.) eebasi (f.) eebasoo (plur.) 
Pres. Part: yabis 

B. The Hollow Verbs or Verbs whose 2'*'^ Radical is a: 


§ 124. I'he rad. a of the "Hollow Verbs" changes in the 2^^^ and 
P' p. sing, and plur. perf. to obo/-i. — The rad. a is really w, y 
or ', as is seen in the impf. where the original consonants reappear, 
lengthened into oo, ee or a, these being the vowels of the 2'^'^ 
syllable of the impf. throughout.. 

3. p. m. sing. 

kal to speak 

jab to bring 

Chaf to fear 

f. „ 




2. p. m. „ 




f. . 




1. „ m.&f. „ 




3. „ „ „ „ plur. 



chaf 00 

^' n " " " " 




-*-• 5)77"" n 





3, p. m. sing. 




f. . 




2. „ m. 




f. „ 




1. „ m.&f.„ 




3. „ „ „ „ plur. 




^« 55 n 5) 51 51 




-'■• V T) T) 55 55 





2. p. m. sing. 




f- . 








— 36 

The midtlle rati, of these verbs is changed in the pres. part, 
to a consonantal y. 

kayil j^yih chayif. 

§ 125. The [last. part, of verbs conjugated like kal and jab 

is minimal and minjab, that uf verbs conjugated like chaf is moocheef. 

§ 126 

. Hollow vei 

bs con 


1 ) like kal: 


pass by, enter 
























boil over 


return, repeat 




have been 


tend (animals), 

act tactfully, rule 


like jab: 


be absent 


























wish, will 










lift, take away lak 

be proper 


lay egg 


measure (cap 


sa" hold, contaiu zad 



like chaf. 




pass the night 

rar be 

come jealoi 


become embarrassed 

C. Verbs which have a or i as S""^ radical. 
§ 127. These verbs retain their characteristic a or i throughout 
The a forms, in some persons, a diphthong, while the i is lengthened 
e. g. 2. p. f. singular. 
3. p. m. sing, bauii to build nisi t 

f. „ ban at nisit 

2. „ m. „ banait nseet 

f. „ banaiti nseeti 

l.p.m.&f. ,, banait nseet 

rget I kara "to read" 
conjugated like 

37 — 

3. p. ni.&f. plur. 






^ • n 5) « 71 11 



Impf. 3. p.m. slug. 

byibnio. bibni 



f. „ 




2. „ m. „ 




f. ,. 




l.p.m.&f. slug. 




3. „ „ „ „ plur. 




^- V »1 5) 51 'J 




' • n )) )) « n 




Imp. 2, p. m. sing. 




f- „ 








Pres. Part: 




Past Part: 




Verbs conjugated 


1) biina 

'ata give l.iaka 

speak tafa- 

extiiig'uish shak 

(i accuse 

jara flow, run kafa 

suffice rama 

throw rata 


chatasiu masha walk 

saka water, give to drink 

jala clean cooking vessels 
fasha spread, break out (disease). 





become dear 


become warm 
clear (weather) 

ill become high 
jin become hard 
llimi become heated, fiery 

sihl be drowsy, be diverted 

hiini expresses also that an action reaches its climax: 

himi_d-d()olab The wheel turned as fast as possible 

llimi radaboo 'alaina His wrath against us reached its height 

3) kara 
fada redeem (religious-sense) bada begin kara let 

D. Doubly Weak Verbs. 

§ 128. These are verbs which have two semi-vowels. They 

are very rare; 

— 38 — 

Verb whose 1^* and 3'^ rad. is a. 
Perf. 3. p. m. s'mg. 

f. „ 

2. „ m. „ 

I. „ m.&f. „ 

3. „ „ „ „ plur. 

aja beeji or biyi to come 

ajat bteeji 

jeet bteeji 

jeeti bteeji 

jeet baji 

ajoo beejoo 

jeetoo bteejoo 

jeeua mneeji 

The ee is more commonly pronounced short: biji, btiji etc. 
Pres. Part.: jai (used also as adv. cf. § 75). 

This verb has no other forms. The impf. is expressed by 
ta'a (ra.) ta'i (f.) ta'oo (plur.) or by taal (m.) ta'ali (f.) ta'aloo (plur.) 

" ri » rt 
n " " )) 

§ 129. Verbs whose I 

St rad is w, 

and the 

3'^'i a, change, in 

the impf., the w to oo f 



Perf. 3. p. m sing. 


Impf. byoomi to beckon 

f. „ 



2. „ m. „ 



f. „ 



1. „ m.&f. „ 



3. „ „ „ „ plur. 




^' n « n n n 



-'•• « « 5) n r 



Imperative : oomi 


oomi (f.) 

oomoo (plur.) 

Pres. Part: wami 

Past Part. 


Verbs conjugated like wama 

wafa pay a debt wa'a remember from old, return to consciousness. 
e. g. es-sakran wa'a 'ala halo The drunken man regained his consciousness. 
aimta wa'ait "ala halak? When did you regain consciousness? 

Remark: The imp. of wa'a means take care\ 
oo'a (m.) oo'i (f.) oo'oo (plur.) 

§ 130. Verbs whose 2"*^ rad. is w and whose 3''^ is a or i 
are conjugated as^ follows: 

— 39 ~ 



p. m. slug, 
f. „ 


f. „ 


„ m.&f. „ 


„ „ „ n plur. 


>) )) )5 n n 


11 M !? J) n 



byikwi to iron 

















ikwoo (plur.) 




Imperative: ikwi (m.) 

Pres. Part. kawi 

Verbs conjugated like kawa: 

'aw-a cry rjackal) mawa mew (cat) t^wa fold lawa bend 

(lawa kindle shawa roast on a skewer, or, in embers. 

Remark: siwi "be worth", hiwi "be iu love", are conjugated 
in the perf. like nisi cf. § 127. They take in the impf. a as last 

vowel, byiswa, byihwa. 

The verb hawa "contain, hold" follows the impf. of these 

verbs ; byihwa. 

§ 131. Verbs whose 2"^^ radical is // and whose S"""^ is a or 
{'If) are conjugated in the following manner: 

rf. 3. 

p. m. sing. 



byaya to become ill 

f- . 




„ m- » 






„m.&f. „ 




. ,, V V plur- 




5) » 71 n n 




V V » ') '? 



heyi Impf. byiliya "to become alive" is conjugated like 'eyi. 

The Derived Forms. 


§ 132. The derived forms of the verb are made by suffixes, 
prefixes, or changes within the root. Such a change of the root, the 
simple form of the verb, produces a change of meaning. 

— 40 — 

§ 133. The simple form, or root, is usually indicated by the 
number I, aud the derived forms, of which there are ten in use in 
the Dialect, by the numbers which follow. 

Although all these derived forms are grammatically possible 
they are not all in use, of all the verbs. 

Form II. 

§ 134. The 2"^ rad. of a verb is doubled to put it into the 
II Form. The meaning of this form is: 

1) causative: e. g-. katal to kill; kattal to cause to kill. 

2) putative: „ „ kadab to lie; kaddab to declare some one a liar. 

3) intensive: „ „ kasar to break; kassar to break into pieces. 

Verbs which are intransitive in the I Form, become transitive in the 
II Form. 

e. g. I Form chaf to fear II Form chawwaf to frighten some one. 
The vowels of the perf. are a ... a and of the impf. a . . .i 
for all verbs. 

Perfect 3. p. m. sing, jarrab 
f. ,, jarrabat 
2, ,, m. „ jarrabt 
f. „ jarrabti 
1. ,, m.&f.„ jarrabt 
,, „plur. jarraboo 



11 j> 11 11 11 

11 11 11 11 11 

bijarrib to attempt 




baj arrib 


minj arrib 

§ 135. The imperative is formed in all the "Derived Forms" 
from the impf. by the omission of its prefix. 

e. g. jarrib (m.) jarrbi (f.) jarrboo (plur.) 

§ 136. The present and past participles, of all the derived 
forms are formed by the prefix m, the pres. part, having i 
and the past part, a as 2'^'^ vowel. 

Pres. Part; mjarrib Past Part: mjarrab 

Verbs which are conjugated like jarrab. 
1) Regular Strong Verbs: 

— 41 — 







ball at 



save, complete 





kaddam I 

a offer 

battan line (garment) 

























fattash'ala seek 




bring out 






























dip some one 




honour, visit 

'attam become dark 








mend a seam 





fakkar fl 

remind some 


chajjal m 

ike ashamed 

'azzal clear away 

make to fit (garment) 

faddal 'ala prefer, with 'an, remain over 
rakka' mend, sew on a new piece j alias 

2) Verbs whose 1** radical is a (- \): 
allaf compose addab chastise, educate ammal 
aclichar delay akkad confirm arrach 

assas found, establish 

3) Verbs whose 2°'^ rad. is like the S^d : 

e. g. dakkak be exact haddad forge (iron) fadda(l 
haddad threaten jaddad renew sammam 

chaffaf alleviate 



4) Verbs whose P* rad. is either w or y; both letters 
being regarded as full consonants. 

e.g. wallad bear (young) Wassa' enlarge, make room wakkaf 

wakka' fall wahhal become muddy waffar 

walla' ignite yassar prosper yassak 

yattam make orphan yakkan assure yabbas 


make drv 

§ 137. 1. Verbs whose 2^^^ rad. is a (which is really w or 
y, cf. §§ 2, 124) have in the II Form, perf. and impf., the diphthong 
ow or i (i is really a diphthong) respectively: 

— 42 - 

e, g, dowwar Impf. bidowwir turu, make round; with 'ala seek; from dar. 

diya' Impf. bidiyi' lose; froindk'. Their conjugation is, in all other 
respects, regular. 

Verbs of this 

class : 


bring in 




rub (at the bath) 




call at 


wake up 






marry one to another 






estimate (property) 






illuminate, blossom 






boil (only of milk) 






be irritated, forced 




make into 

liiyad 'an 

turn from (road) 






entertain (guest) 

kowwam heap up llOWWat encircle 'owwad'ala accustom some one 

2) Verbs whose S"""^ rad. is a follow the verb bana: 
cf, § 127. 

Verbs of this class: 









rad da 





leave, let 



point out 






najja save 
nashsh a starch 

salla pray 


pick out, choose 

give to eat 



ut chabba hide 
waddaila lead to 
wassa* subscribe, request with bi or fl flan recommend to some one 

e. g. wassi^l-chawaja flan fiyi Recommend me to Mr. N., 

I/'t: recommend Mr. N. in me. 

ya seedi bwasseek bi ibui 

lit: I recommend you in my son. 

sir, I recommend my son to you. 

Form III. 

§ 138. The III Form is formed by omitting the 1^^^ vowel 
of the verb in the I or "Simple Form", substituting a. It denotes 
an attempt to do what is expressed by the I Form, p-, g. I F. nadar 
to see III F. nadar to watch for. 

verbs doubly weak 

43 — 

§ 139. The vowels of all verbs in the perf. Ill F. are d . . . a. 
Those verbs however which have, iu the I Form, as 3"^ radical a or i 
retain it; cf. § 127. All veibs have i as 2°^ vowel in the imper- 
fect. The verbs 1^^ or 2'^'^ rad. w or y or 1st j-ad. a retain these 
semi-vowels as strong consonants throughout. 

Perf. 3. p. m. sing. 

f. „ 
2. „ m. „ 

f. „ 
1. ,, m.&f. ,, 










samhi (f.) 
Past Part: 

Verbs of the III form conjugated like samah 

1. Eegular strong Verbs: 

>> )> ii n 

>) 5> i> )) 

^' n ;} n i) 5> 

Imperative: samih (m.) 
Pres. Part: msamih 

Impf. l)isamili to forgive 
bit samih 

samhoo (plur.) 



help, support 
light with 
separate from 



'alaj cure lataf 

shamat quarrel rahan 

dafa' defend harab 

batali wrestle kasas 

samah forgive kabal 

sharat bet, wager dadad 

Sabak run a race 

Verbs whose l^t rad. is 'a. (= l) 

achad take offence at aman believe 

akal eat with somebody ajar let 

Verbs wliose 1^^ radical is w 

continue Wafak be suitable Warab slant 

Verbs whose 2^*^ radical is w ar y. 

take counsel jawab answer 

give work by the piece tawab 

treat kindly 
bet, wager 
wage war 

receive kindly 
offer resistance 


hand something to 
trade, barter 


dawam *ala persevere in 

lay am 

last, be durable. 


§ 140. Verbs whose S'*^ rad. is a or i are conjugated like 
bana cf. § 127. 

— 44 — ' 

e.g. sawa Impf. bisawi make, do f(r. straighten matters 

Imperative: sawi (m.) sawi ff.) sawoo (plur.) 

Pres. Part. msawi Past Part. nisawa. 

Verbs of the III Form whose S'*^ rati, is a semi-vowel: 

jaza retaliate, punish nada call liawa drive away 

kafa recompense laka meet afa be kept well (by God.i 

haka speak witli some one 

Form IV. 

§ 141. The IV Form is formed by the prefixing of a before 
the "Simple Verb" which loses its l^t vowel, and is causative in 
meaning. It is of very rare occurrence and, in its stead, the I. II. 
or III. Forms are used. 

The verbs are conjugated in accordance with the "Simple 
Form" from which they are derived. The accent falls upon the 1^* 
syllable in the 3. p. m. sing, perfect. 

1) The regular "Strong Verb." 

as^ad make bappy amhal give respite. amtarat it rains 
adliak make laugh a'ajab please askar make drunk 

afab cause trouble atlajat* it snows an' am be gracious 

2) Verbs whose l^t radical is w: 

OWJa"" cause pain, hurt OWda' give into custody 

3) Verb whose 3'*^ radical is a. 

ashtat it rains 
Note tlie verb ib.sar contraction of hoo ab?ar lit: "He (/. e. God) 
has seen" used in the sense of perhaps or 1 do not know. 

Form V. 

§ 142. The V Form is formed by prefixing t to the II 
Form. In meaning it is reflexive and passive. The vowels of this 
Form are, in both the perf, and impf. a ... a. 

* 3. p. f. sing, because tlie noun ed-d'viija "the w.orld" is either used with 
it or is implied, cf. § 212 d. 


— 45 — 

1) Regular Sti-oiig Verbs coujugated like tharrak: 





fallam be instructed, learn 

1 tsliakkar 



rejoice at 

tballal be drenched 


be credible 



tfaddal please accept 

; tkaddam 




t'ajjab wonder at 

^i tlaffat 

turn round 


make oneself 

big, become proud 


be dyed with henna 


be broken into pieces 

tfarraj 'ala 

look at with interest 

tkaffal fee 

become security for 


rend (a garment) 


sit cross legged 

2) Verbs 1'^ rad. a (= ',) conjugated like tharrak 
t'akkad convince oneself failHTial to hope, meditate 
t'allani suffer pain t'achchar be delayed t'assaf 'ala regret 

3) Verbs P' rad. w or y conjugated like tharrak 
twakkal be appointed trustee tyattaiu become an orphan 
twaffa* die tyabbas become rigid 

4) Verbs whose 2^^"^ rad. is either w or y have the diph- 
thongs ow or i {cf. § 137) in the 2°"^ sjdlable, following in all 
respects the II Form. 

Verbs of this class: 

t OWWad ala accustom oneself to tsiyad go hunting, fishing 

t'owwak be delayed tlliyar be perplexed 

tjowwaz be married thiyan be sorry 

tiyan be appointed, nominated tSOWWar be photographed, figure to oneself 

5) Verbs whose 3''^ rad. is a semi-vowel are conjugated 
like kara: cf. § 127. 

Verbs conjugated like kara: 

tmalla be filled tsalla converse tsliakka min complain of 

tradda dine tchabba hide oneself t'ashsha sup 

trajja implore tmaslisha go up and down trabba receive education 

Remark: Instead of the simple prefix t of the V Form 
frequently the syllable it is used: 
e.g. itachchar for tachchar (cf. also § 143, Remark). 

"doubly weak verb. 

46 — 

Foim VI. 

§ 143. The VIFoi'in may make a transitive verb of the II 
Form reflexive, or may give it the meaning of "to pretend a thing." 
It also makes the action reciprocal.* It is formed by prefixing t 
to the III Form: 

e. g. Ill F. salah "to make peace" VII F. tsalah "make peace together' 
The vowels of the impf. are a ... a throughout. 

e. (J. Perf. tkatal Impf. byitkatal to fight, quarrel 

Impf. itkatal (m.) itkatali (f.) itkataloo (plur.) 

Pres.Part: mootkatilt Past Part: mo~otkatal 

1) Strong verbs conjugated like tkatal: 


embrace each other 



help each other 



pretend to be ill 



quarrel together 



talk together 





f'ahad make a contract, agreement thamal 

make friendship 
war with each other 
work together 
dispute together 
let oneself be cured 
postpone a promise 
let oneself go, be indifferent 

2) Verbs whose P* rad. is 'a (- \) 

tanas be rejoiced, have the pleasure t'amar take counsel 

3) The w of verbs whose P*^ or 2^^ rad. is w {or a) 
remains unchangeable in this conjugation, and such verbs are 
treated as regular Strong Verbs 

Perf. twada' be modest Impf. bitwada" 

tniawat pretend to be dead tnawal accept (when handed) 

tkawal take in piece-work tshawar take counsel 


4) Verbs whose 3"''^ radical is a semi-vowel are conjugated 
like bana § 127. There are only few verbs of this kind in use in 
the Dialect: 

Verbs of this class: 
tjaza be rewarded 


recover (health) 

"Vfrb which are reciprocal can naturally be used only in the plural. 

— 47 — 


talk together 
devote oue self to 

tliama fee 

meet each other 
take refuge with 

Remark: Au i is ofteu pretixed to tlie t of the VI Form 
as in the case of the V. 

Form VII. 

§ 14:4. The VII Form is the regular passim of the verb and 
can be formed from ahnost all verbs. It also expresses that a thing 
or person is adapted to the idea contained in the I Form. It is 
formed by prefixing' iu to the I P^orm. The vowels of the perf. 
are a ... a and of the impf. mostly i; a few verbs have a as 2°*^ 
vowel. The accent is never on the prefix in, but is placed as in the 
case of the verb of the Simple form: 

The P* vowel is dropped in the impf. in the case of those 
persons which have no suffix. Those with a suffix omit the 2^^ vowel. 

1) The regular "Strong Verb' 

Perf. 3 


p. m. sing, injarah 

„ f. „ injarahat 

2. „ m. „ injaralit 
„ f. „ injarahti 

1. „ m.&f. „ injaralit 

3. „ ,, „ plur. injarahoo 

2. „ „ ,, „ injarahtoo 
1. ,, ,, ,, ,, injarahna 

iujrih (m.) injirhi (f.) 

Past Part: minjrih 
Strong Verbs conjugated like injarah: 
inbahash* be dug inba'at" be sent 

inhazam have escaped intaba'* be printed 

intarad be driven away inmasak'* 

insaraf** be changed, spent (money) 

Impf. byinjrih 
injirhoo (plur.) 

be wounded 

inbasat be satisfied 
infasad spoiled 
be held, caught 

* These verbs take in the impf. a or i as 2°^ vowel. 

insaraf with a in the impf. means "to be exchanged"; with i in the 
impf. "to go away, leave". 

— 48 — 
2. Verbs with middle rad. a are conjugated like chaf cf. 


e. g. inshal Imyf. 


to he taken awaj'. 

iukam be taken up 


be drawn away 


be said 

in'at be disgusted 


cage in 


be brought 

3) Verbs witli doubled 2'^'^ rad. are conjugated like indakk 
Impf. byindakk "be beaten, be played (music), be rung (bell)." 

The pert, is according to the I Form cf. § 116. 

Verbs conjugated like indakk: 

iuramm be grieved inliall be loosened (knot) 

iujarr be drawn insliadd pull hard 

insarr rejoice inhatt be put down, sink 

insail be put in type, set themselves in line 

4) Verbs whose S""*^ rad. is a semi-vowel are conjugated 
like baua cf. § 127. 

e. (J. intafa Impf. byintfl to be extinguished 

Imp. intfl (m.) iutfi (f.) intfoo (plur.) Part: mintfi 
Verbs conjugated like intafa: 
indara scatter, be hidden indawa be illuminated iukala be fried 

intawa be folded inlawa be bent 

injala be scoured (vessels and plates) in'ama be blinded, become confused 
inkawa be ironed, fired (man or beast for disease) 

Form VIII. 

§ 145. The VIII Form has a reflexive as well as a passive 
meaning. It is formed by the prefixing of i and tlie insertion of t 
after the P* radical. 
The letter t is however changed 

1) to t if the l'^* rad is s, d, t or s; 

i.Stalt* be set in line 

istabar wait for 

idtarab be troubled, anxious 

tala" go out, rise (sun) VIII ittala" 'ala examine, study 

safar catch VIII istafar conquer 

daja' lie down VIII idtaja' go to bed 

satf set in line 


sabar wait 


daiab beat 


— 49 

2) to d, if the 1^* rad, is d, d orz: 





pretend to be something 





discuss (rarely used) 





be crowded 





multiply oneself 

The 1st rad. of the "Stroug Verb" loses its vowel in the 
VIII Form, the vowel a being inserted after the characteristic t. 

The vowel of the 2"^^ rad. is i in the impf.; it is omitted 
before verbal suifixes. The conjugation is regular. 

e. g. ihtamal Impf. byihtmil to suffer, bear 

Imp: ihtmil (m.) ihtimli (f.) ihtimloo (plur.) 

Pres. Part: mihtmil Past Part: mo'ohtamal 

Verbs conjugated like ihtamal: 

1. Eegular Strong Verbs: 

iltahab be ignited iftakar meditate ichtabar become experienced 

i'tadar excuse oneself ihtaraz guard oneself iktarab approach 

istalah better oneself iutachab elect, choose ishta'al get on fire 

ihtaram honour imtahan examine ichtasar shorten, epitomize 

ichtara' invent ihtarak be burnt imtana' refuse 

iltazam be compelled ishtarak take part ishtaral work 

2. Verbs whose 1®* rad. is a (- '^\). 

The radical a, together with the inserted t, change to double 
t in the case of all verbs whose first rad. is a. 

e. (). ittahad agree upon from ahad keep an agreement 

agree upon 
ittachad take for oneself 

achad take 

3. Verbs whose l^^ rad. is w. 

These verbs, like those of No. 2, form a double t instead 
of wt. Like No, 2 they are of rare occurence. 

e. g. ittazan let oneself be weighed Ittaka protect oneself 

ittasaf be characterized by good or bad qualities ittada' be humbled 
ittakal rely upon 

§ 116. Verbs whose 2'^'^ rad. is like the 3'** take a as 2°'^ 
vowel in the imperfect. 

A Manual of Palestincan Arabic. 4 

— 50 ~ 

€. g. imtadd Impf. byimtadd to spread oaeself 

Imp: imtadd (m.) imtaddi (f.) imtaddoo (plur.) 

Fart : mimtadd 

Verbs coujugated like imtadd: 

irtamm grieve ibtall become wet ihtadd get into a rage 

ihtall conquer ijtarr ruminate Ishtadd become firm 

istaff be put in line, put oneself in line 

§ 147. Verbs whose middle rad- is a retain it throughout 
the impf. and in the 3. p. sing, and plur. of the perfect. 

Perf. 3. p. m. 




by irtah to rest oneself 





2. „ m. 








1. „ m.&f. 








^•75 11 n n 




^'11 ri 11 11 







irtahi (f.) 

irtahoo (plur.) 



Verbs conjugated like irtah: 

ishtak long for iktat feed oneself ibtal 

ihtar become perplexed irtah rest istad 

ichtar choose for oneself 

act deceitfully 

§ 148. Verbs which have as 3''<^ rad. a semi-vowel are con- 
jugated in the following manner, cf. bauii § 127. 





p. m. sing. 


byishtki to denounce, 

. f. . 


btishtki [accu 


„ m. 



» '■' 11 




„ m.&f. ,, 




,. » „ plur. 




T) 11 n 11 




n T) T) n 



— 51 — 

Imperative: ishtki (m.) ishtki (f.) ishtkoo (plur.) 

Pies. Part: mobshtki Past Part: mooshtaka 

Verbs conjugated like ishtaka: 

iltaka meet some one ibtada begiu ichtasiia fear to do 

islltara purchase imtala fill oneself ishtafa rejoice malignantly 

Remark: istawa Impf. byistwi "become ripe, become done" 
(food), a doubly weak verb, is also conjugated like ishtaka. 

Form IX. 

§ 149. The IX Form is constructed by the prefixing of i 
and the doubling of the 3'''^ radical. It intensifies the meaning of the 
Simple Verb and is used only of words which denote colours orphy- 
sical defects. These verbs are conjugated in the following manner: 



3. p. m. sing. 


byichdarr to become green 

f. „ 



2. p. m. „ 



f- „ 



1. „ m.&f. „ 



3. „ „ „ „ plur. 



"' 7? 5) )? )! 11 



-*■• '5 77 M n )7 



Imperative : ichdarr 

(m.) ichdarri 


ichdarroo (plur). 

Part: moochdarr 

Verbs conjugated like ichdarr: 

ihmarr become red izrakk become blue ibyadd become white 

iswadd become black isfarr become yellow i arajj become lame 
1 awarr become one-eyed 

Remark: Instead of the IX Form a construction with sar 
cf. § 126. 2. and the adjective c/. § 219 is however preferred; 
e.cj. sar a'raj He has become lame sar achdar it has become green. 

Form X. 

§ 150. The X Form is mainly reflexive; it has a putative 
character, and also conveys the idea of "asking for" or "praying for" 
what is expressed by the Simple Form. 


— 52 — 

The X Form is constructed b}^ prefixing the syllable ista 
to tlie verb, which loses its 1^* vowel. 

The Strong- Verb has the vowel i between the 2'^'^ and S'^^ 
radical in the imperfect. 

Perfect : 


3. p. m. sing. 


byistahsin to sauction 

f. . 



2. ., m. „ 



f. „ 



1. „ m.&f. „ 



3. ,, „ „ „ plur. 




^* !) ?5 » M ri 



■*•• 71 71 n !i » 



Imperative: istahsin 

(ill.) istahsni 


istahsuoo (plur). 

Pres. Pari : mo'ostahsin Past 



Verbs conjugated like istaUsan: 

ista'jal hurry istafham question any one ista'iam 'an enquire after 

IStakbar consider great istansar wait, expect ista (Ian ask permission 
istarrab regard as strange istakbal receive (guest) istahal deserve 
istamwat pretend to be dead istarfar ask forgiveness (of God) 
istafrar vomit istachwas declare a thing good. 

§ 151. The "Doubled Verb" which, like the regular "Strong 
Verb", has i in the last syllable of the impf. follows in all other 
respects the conjugation of the simple stem. 

e. g. istachass Impf. byistchiss assign, pers. or thing, for a special purpose. 

Verbs of this class: 

ista'add prepare oneself istadall infer, conclude 

istamarr insist istahakk be worthy of, deserve. 

§ 152. Verbs whose middle rad. is weak are conjugated as 



3. p. m. sing. 



to borrow 

., f. .. 



2. „ m „ 



— 53 

2. p. f. sing. 
1. „ m.&f.„ 

3. „ ,. „ plur. 

"• >) n n 5) 











Imperative: ist'eer (m.) isfeeri (f.) ist'oeroo (plur). 
Pres. Part: niisfeer Past Part: mist'ar 

Verbs conjugated like ist'ar: 

istarah rest istashar ask counsel istajab grant istamal gain over 

§ 153. Verbs whose 3''«^> rad. is a are conjugated like bana 
(cf. § 127.) in the perfect. They have in the impf. the vowels a . . .i. 
e. g. Perf. istarja to dare Impf. byistarji 

Verbs conjugated like istarja:. 

istahla find agreeable istatna exempt istauua (from ana) wait. 
ISta fa ask for one's dismissal. 

The Strong Verb of four Radicals. 

al-fi'l ir-rdbba'i._,s-salim. 
§ 15-I-. Veibs of this kind have, in tbe perf. the vowels a . . a 

and in the impf. a 

. . . i. They 



ijugated in th 

le followiu< 

JilaUUcl . 



3. p. m. sing. 



to beat into 

f. „ 




2. „ m. „ 



f „ 



1. „in.&f. „ 



3. „ „ „ „ plur. 



'"'• >5 M )) >> >5 



'-' )j )) »; )5 !» 



Imperative . dakdik 

(m :) dakdki 


dakdkoo i 


Pres. Part: imdakdik Past 

Part : 

im dakdak 

54 - 

Verbs conjugated like dakdak; 

hamliam neigh tabtab clap the hands 

bahdar squander Shaklab upset 

laklak lap(byadog) rarbal 

tarjani translate falfal 

niaiiinad make smooth marmar embitter 

zahzaV stir without removing 

kartas squat, putting the hands around the legs 

barta kick up the heels (from overfeeding). 


sha'lab smoke (lamp) 

sliamsham sniff at 
masmar nail 

bartal bribe 

shanhak bray 

bltar practice farriery 

The Substantive. 

il-ism lit: the name. 

§ 155. Most uouns are derived from verb stems either of 
the simple or derived form {cf. §§ 201. 203.) 

§ 156. All substantives and adjectives are of masc. or fern, 
gender. The regular feminine singular, el moljfrad, is formed by adding 
the ending i, e, or a to the masc. noun, 
e. g. armal widower armale widow; 'abd slave 'abdi female slave 

tiyib good (m.) tiybe (f.) kbeerbig,old kbeeri (f.) 

§ 157. Some nouns, although not feminine in form or mean- 
ing, are commonly regarded as such: 

e.g. ard earth shams sun reeh wind 

dar house jahannam hell nar fire 

SOOllam ladder darb path, road nafs soul 

tai^oon mill rooh spirit 'ain eye 

§ 158. The Arabic language has two kinds of plural: 

1). The Regular Plural. 

The ending of this plural, for the masc. uouns, adjectives, etc. 
is eeni, for the fem. at. 

2). The Broken Plural. 

The larger number of words form the plural according to the 
jam' et-takseer, "broken plural," SO called because, in addition to the 
fact that it has prefixes and suffixes, it has inner changes. 


Its varieties are numerous cf. § 168. 

§ 159. lu addition to the sing', and plural, the Arabic language 
possesses another number, the dual, el-mrnitannii. The Dual is used 
when two of a kind are meant. The ending- of the mdbtanna is, for 
both g-euders, ain. The fern, ending "e, i or a is changed before ain to 
t, {cf. also §§ 2., 192 a, b). 





two sorcerers 





two ploughs 





two button-holes 





two feet 

§ 160. There are many collective nouns, ism ^ij -jam', in Arabic. 
Their singular form, the noun of unity, ism el-wihde, is formed by 
adding the fem. ending sing, to the noun : 



• hamame 

one pigeon 




one fish 




one nut 




one fly 




one cow 




one bee 

Remark : 

The fem. plur. ending, added to a collective noun, denotes 
a defined quantity of that which is expressed by the collective 
noun. The ending at corresponds therefore to the article 'partitif 
in French: e.g. fiji "radishes" i. e. radishes in general: jeeb el-fijlat 
"bring the radishes," means certain radishes in particular. 

§ 161. The names of peoples are also collective, and form 
their feminine by adding the ending iye, called uisbe {cf. § 162), to 
the collective noun: 

the English el-inkleezi, the English-man 

the English woman 

the Germans el-almani the German 

the German woman 
el-amerkan or am erikan the Americans el-amerkani the American 
el-amerkaniyi the American woman 

e. g. el-inkleez 

— 56 — 

el-frauj the Europeans el-franji the European 

el-fran}'ijl the European woman 

es-shwam the Syrians esh-shami the Syrian 

esh-shamiyi the Syrian woman 

el- bacloo the Beduins el-badawi the Bednin 

el-badawiyi the Beduin woman 

Remark: The nisbe (cf. § 162) of collective nouns of peoples 
serves also as the adjective : 

e.g. fraujl a European (m.), also adjective masc.; franjiyi fem.adjective 

§ 162. The name ol a professional, tradesman, etc. is formed 
by adding- the ending i fern, iyi ( or lyc) to the noun (sing, or plur.) 
which expresses that with which they are occupied in tlieir work. 
Such nouns are called nisbe "relationship": 


e. g. sa'at watches 

srcToj saddles 

kootoob books 
foochchar earthen vessels 
lialawi name of sweetmeat 

donkey saddles 

srooji saddler 

kootOObi book-dealer 
foochchari or fachoori potter 
halawatl maker of halawi 

tl maker of donkey saddles. 

§ 163. The fem. ending of the nisbe is added to a noun or 
adjective to form a new word, involving the special meaning of 
something appertaining to the first; 




































municipal council 



grating, lattice 



§ 164. The Turkisli ending ji, (f.) jiyi {or jiye), serves the 
same purpose as the nisbe. It is in common use: 

— 57 — 

e.g, kdbndra shoe kdbndarji shoemaker 

kobmrd'ok custom, duty kobmrookji custom-house official 

SOOfra table SObfraji waiter 

kahwe coffee kahwaji or kahwati coffee-house keeper 

'arbaji coachman 

The Regular or "Sound Plural" 

aj-jam' is-salim 

§ 165. The "Sound Plural" is used 

A. with masculine substantives: 

1) With all proper names of men: 

e.g. chah^l i)iur. chaleeleen Khaleel 'eed pUir. 'eedeen Eed 

2) With all part, which have retained their participial meaning: 
e. g. sami' plur. sanfeen hearing tali' plur. tareen ascending 

radid „ raddeeu answering madid „ maddeen stretching out 
saniu „ sanneen thinking marik „ markeen passing by 
hasid „ hasdeen harvesting uatik „ natkeen vomiting 

Remark: This plural serves also in place of the feminine, 
cf. § 166. 2. Remark. 

3) With almost all names of those who follow a profession : 
e. g bahri plur. bahriyeen sailor chabbaz plur. chabbazeen baker. 

'attal carrier haddad smith tabba' printer 

'attar grocer ma'moor official biya' seller 

Chiyat tailor mjallid bookbinder Siyad hunter 

charrat turner najjar carpenter hiyak weaver 

dabbar tanner sarraf money-changer liammar donkey-driver 

Remark: The word sanii "year", which has a fern, form in 
the sing, has sneen in the plural {cf. § 166. 6). 

§ 166. B. with feminine substantives: 

1) The names of women, as well as of men, ending in a. 
e. g. fatme pi. fatmat talha pi. talhat (man's name) 

'azeeze „ 'azeezat ni'me „ ni'mat „ „ 

salmii „ salmat 'ode „ 'odat 

— 58 — 

2) All the participles form a regular fern, plural: 
e. g, rajif (m.) rajfe (f.) raj fat (f. plur.) trembling. 

Remark : Although this is the regular fern, plur., the masc. 
form is more frequently used, cf. § 107. 

3) All names of those who follow a profession {cf. § 165. 3) 
form a regular fem. plural: 

e. g. 'ashshi cook (m.) ashshiye (f.) 'ashshiyat (f. plur.) 

4) Words which, in the singular, have no feminine ending: 
e. g. 'amar building hiwan animal oljjak stove 

bhar spice hsab bill ral lock 

bat shoulder lizam girth nasam law 

chan khan (inn) kar trade salam salutation 

5) Titles and nouns which are of foreign origin. The letter w 
is often inserted between the last consonant and the plur. ending: 

e. g. basha plur. bashawat Pasha baik plur. baikawat Bey 
ara „ arawat Agha baba ,, babawat Pope 

baboor „ baboorat Steamer fatoora „ fatoorat Invoice 

6) Arabic nouns which form the plur. in the same manner as 
those of No. 5; 

e. g. sama plur. samawat heaven sala plur, salawat prayer 

o'bcht „ oochwat {or chiyat) sister kiri „ karwat rent 
Sana „ sanawat {or sneen) year cf. § 165. 3, Remark 

7) The names of the arable months: 

e. g. mooharram plur. mot)harramat Muharram {cf. Part II). 

§ 167. Some nouns of four or more consonants have the 
plur. in either een or at although they have no fem. ending in the 
singular. Words whose plur. ending is een. cf. § 165. 3. 
'amraar mason chaddam servant 

kaddab liar halawi a kind of sweetmeat 

m'allim teacher mliibb lover 

mh^ndis architect m'allif writer 

— 59 — 

mnadi* caller out 

mdoslim moslem 

mobstashfa hospital 

nassab scoundrel 

Saukari* tinsmith 

2) Words whose plural ending- is at: 









darabzeen banister 

























m aha 11 






















ham mam 





sack for fodder 

Remark: Many words ending in i, (nisbe, cf. § 162), espe- 
cially those of Turkish origin ending in ji, (cf. § 184) form the 
plur. by suffixing the ending iye fcf. also § 165. 3 Eemark): 
e.g. boyaji plur. boyajiye bootblack, 

fachoori potter tarmashi druggist harami thief 
koomrot)kji customhouse-official kooudarji shoemaker 

The Broken Plural. 

§ 168. (cf. § 158. 2) 

1) Nouns which have a long vowel in the 2"*^ syllable in 
the sing, drop it in the plur., taking 6o as vowels in both syllables 
if both syllables are pronounced. 

a) Masculine Nouns. 
e.g. ktab p/wr. kootoob or kot>tb book lijab _/9/Mr. ho'bjb amulet 
bsat smooth carpet firash bed, mattress hijeen dromedary hsan stallion 

*Words ending in t change it to y before tlie plural ending cf. §§ 162, 
lt)5. 3, Remark. 

— 60 — 

lizam* girth izar** mautle for women Hiaf bed-i-over 

sraj clay lamp tareek*** road 

b) feminine nouns: 
The fern, ending is dropped in the plural 
e. g. haseere piur. hobsol)r or hottsr straw-mat 

mdeene town mrara cave 'abaye plur.. 'obbi abai (cloak of peasants; 

2. The following nouns with fern, ending, having only a 
short vowel in the l^^ syllable, take a as vowel between the 2°*^ 
and S""*^ radicals, the fern, ending being dropped: 

e. g. cniro 

e plur, cnirao 


























fobrsa opportunity, holiday 












ruse, trick 
































patch, mend 



' Note: 1. Nouns whose 2id rad- is oo or a, change it in the plur. to u; 
taking in the 1"^ syllable the corresponding short vowel. 
e g. f(5ota plur. foowat napkin 

Note 2. Nouns whose 2nd rad. is ee change it in the plur. to y, taking 
in the 1*** syllable the corresponding short vowel. 

e. g. jeefe plur. jiyaf. carrion 

3. The following nouns which have ge in the 2°^^ syllable 
in the sing, shorten it in the plur. to short a, take do as vowel of 
the l^t syllable, and suifix another short a: 

*plur. also hzoome cf. 168. 6. 
**plur. o"ozr 
***plur. also t^rayik meaning "manner, fashion" 

Stlfeer ambassador 
shaheed witness, martyr 
shareek associate 

— 61 — 

e.g. 'amoel patron, buyer plur. "oomala 

aseer* prisoner chateeb orator 

'aleeni learned man hakeem doctor 

ameer prince kafeel surety 

rafeek companion 

Remark: The following two nouns form their plural in the 
same manner: 
sha'ii' pinr. shoVara poet chaleefi piur. ehoblafa Caliph 

*Nouns l«t rad. a change the a in the plur. to do e.g. ameer plur. OOmara. 

4. Nouns which have only a short vowel in the sing, and 
insert a after the 2"'^ consonant: 
e. g. rajot»l plur. rjal man. 

a) Masculine nouns: 


























breast (fem.) 














stone mortar 











tabak ! 

native wash-pan 
straw dish 



i section of orange 

b) Feminine nouns: 

The reg. fern, ending disappears in the plural: 
e.g. jarra p/wr: jrar. water-jug 

jottm'a week kimme sleeve rakbo neck 

kahbe prostitute kooffe rush-basket ralli grain 

kaFa fortress uasli blade Salle wicker-basket 

shabaka net talh hill farde one of the two sacks carried by the camel, 

1) Nouns whose middle rad. is a semi-vowel change it to y in the 

plural : e. g. beer phir. byar. 

2) The plur. denotes "dwelling-places"' 

— 62 — . 

Remark: The noun §ahib "friend" forms its pliir. like the 
preceding words, ^hab. cf. § 220. 

5. Many nouns which have only short vowels in the sing, 
form their plur. by the prefix a 07' \, the omission of the 1=^^ vowel, 
and the insertion of a between the 2"^^ and S'"'^ consonants. 

a) with the prefix a 
e. g. doo'f plur. ad'af weakness ; 


















support of arch 


















































condition, state 












maternal uncle 


a weight of 

1,25 Kg. 

1) Nouns derived from verbs !«* rad. a, lengthen it in the plur. to a: 
e. g. amal plur. amal. 

2) Nouns derived from verbs 2nd pad. w, take w before the a in the 

e.g. bab plur. abwab. 

3) Nouns derived from verbs 2nd rad. y, take y before the a in the plural: 
e. g. bait plur: abyat. 

4) Nouns derived from verbs l^' lad. w take oo or ow in the plural: 
e. g. walad plur. oolad or owlad. 

Remarks: 1. Fractions of numerals up to ten form their plural 
also in this manner {cf. § 50): 
e. g. soods ^je, plur. asdas. 

The following nouns take the prefix a and the feminine 
ending in the plural: 

63 -- 






















Note: ism 2)lur. asami name. 

b) with the prefix i 
e. g. jism plur. ijsam organic body 

shee plur. ashya thing. 





































For the plural of the nouns of weak middle radical cf. the preceding 
notes 2. and 3. 

b. Many words which in the sing, have short vowels, insert 
00 between the 2"^'^ and 3""^ consonants. Nouns with a weak rad. 

are treated according to § 168. 
a) Masculine nouns: 

5. Notes 1. 2. and 3. 

e.cj. marj 

phtr. mrooj meadow 


plur. r 

J^OOm cloud 


fault, shame 








































foal of ass 




limit, pena' 

ity jifn 




















*For another plur. meaning "'commands" cf. No. 13. 
*plur. do'onoob cf. § 169 note. 
*plur. also ace. to No. 4. 

— 64 — 












condition, bet 










tax, ceremony 














chest, breast 


suit, dress 






money paid for brid 

3 saif 




mo'oh 1 





male goat 




coffee-cup holder, envelope 






wild beast 

b) Feminine nouns. 

The fem. ending is dropped before the plur. ending: 
e. g. ramshe, plur, rmol)sh eyelash 

kidre day cooking pot dam'a tear liabbe berry 

zihre flower nijme star sha'ra hair 
Note also the words: 

shahid plur, shhood eye-witness dmar plur. dm(X)r or dmarat brain 

doorzi „ drOOZ Druse bat „ boot armpit, cf. § 166. 4. 

7) The following nouns suffix e or a after a guttural and insert 
00 between tlie 2"*^ and 3'''* consonants: 

e. g. tacht plur. tc.hoote bed-stead 
'amm paternal uncle dakar*** male 
chltm signet ring nab" spring (water) 

Choold mole nahr river 

no^OChl crowbar sab' lion 

takm man's suit (European.) 

8) The following nouns form the plur. by the insertion of ee 
between the 2°*^ and S'^ consonants: 

e. g. 'abd plur. 'abeed slave; l.imar plur. hameer donkey 








double-barrel gun 

*plur. also aufo^bs 
**plur. also ishhoor. 
***words ending in r take a after it in the plural: dakar plur. dkoora. 

— 65 — 




artisan, servant 





9) The followinjr nouns change the long vowel of the sing, 
to 00, double the 2°"^ rad. and insert a before the 3"*. 

e. g. katib plur. ko'bttab writer 
'amil workman, official hasid envious one 

ll^jj pilgrim kaflr unbeliever 

hakim ruler lakib passenger 

llaris watchman Sakiu inhabitant 

Note also the following nouns which do not double the 2^^ 

kadi plur. ko'bdat judge mashi phir. mo"oshat foot-passenger 
Sa'i „ SoVat messenger Wall „ WO^olat governor 

10) The following nouns which end in the sing, in iye, change 
in the plur. the i to a and the last vowel to a. 

e. g. r'iye plur. ra'aya herd, subject. 

'ashiye evening chatiye sin raziye ill-fate 

'atiye gift hadiye present sabiye young woman 

baliye misfortune liamiye zeal wasiye* command, will 

Remark: Note also the words niye plur. nawaya "intention" 
ndo?rani (cf. § 162) plur. ua^ara "Christian". 

11) The following nouns take the ending an, insert o^o after 
the pt consonant and omit the 2'^'^ vowel. Nouns derived from 
„Hollow Verbs" (cf. § 110 B,) change the long vowel to ee. 

e. g. rlam plur. ro'blman young man taj plur. teejan crown. 

'arab {co 

11.) arabs 


loaf of bread 












clever fellow 


















woollen stutt 






















court, yard 

chalak fellah-garment 



ood God (mus. instrument) 

*wa§aya allah el-'ashar or el-'ashar kilmat Tlie ten commandments. 
A Manual of Paieatiaean Arabic. 5 

— 66 — 

Note: Words ending in i (cf. § 157) change it in the plur. to y 
e.g. sAbi plur. so'bbjan. 

Note also the following words: 
mara plur. uiswan woman wadi plur. widyan valley 

12. Some nouns having a long vowel in the 2°<^ syllable of 
the sing, form their plur. by the insertion of aji between the 2'^'^ 
and 3'"'* consonants. The long vowel of the sing, is dropped. Those 
nouns which have a fern, ending drop it in the plural: 

e.g. 'aroos plur. "ai'ayis bride, jnaze ^^wr. janayiz funeral service 

'ajeebe wonder 

'ajOOZ old woman 

'azeeme invitation 

bda a merchandise 

dakeeka minute 

flooka boat 

fteele wick 

hamoole clan 
jazeere island 
jdeele plait of hair 

kabeele tribe 
kaddoom axe 

kareeb relative 







kaseede a kind of poem waseefe 

fteeri mould of vegetables shbeen god-father, best-man 




lesson, task 

sheet (paper) 



13. The following nouns which have a long vowel in the 
1st syllable and a short one in the 2'^'^, shorten the long vowel, 
insert the syllable wa between this short vowel and the '2^^ rad. 
and take, in the 3"^ syllable, the vowel i. The feni. ending is drop- 
ped in the plural. 

1) Nouns derived from "Strong Verbs": 
e. g. kalib plur. kawalib form, mould hadti plur. ha wadi t event 










ware-house, shop 












design, rule 





Note: fakha plur. fawakih truit. 

*cf. also § 168. 1. b. 
*plur. means "layers". 

— 67 — 

2) Nouns derived from "Hollow Verbs" insert y after wa: 
'ade plur. 'awayid custom dairi plur. dawayir circle 

faide ,, fawayid rate of interest haji „ hawayij clothes, luggage, things 

3) Nouns whose S'^ rad. is a semi- vowel, take always i 
in the plur. as S""*^ radical: 

e. g. nahyi plur. nawahi district 

jani criminal S^kye channel shati cost 

kafye rhyme sari mast tanye second (time). 

Note also the following nouns: 

choori plur. chawarni priest dabbe plur. dawab riding-animal 

johar „ jawahir jewellery laili „ layali night 

moorani plur. mawarni Maronite. 

14. The following nouns— otherwise like No. 13— takegeinstead 
of i between the 2°^ and S'*^ consonants: 

e. g. taboon plur. tawabeen Palestinean oven for the baking of bread 

'amood column doolab wheel taboot coffin 

babo"©) slipper jamoos buffalo tahoon mill 

baroode gun k^moos lexicon taoos peacock 

dalool guide kanoon law zaroob passage, lane 

deewan coll. of poems natoor watchman. 

Note also : tareech plur. tawareech date (time) . 

Remark: Nouns with fern, endings lose them in the plural; 
e. g. baroode phir. bwareed gun na'oora plur. nawa'eer water-wheel 

15. Some nouns, names of parts of the human body, take the 
ending ain. These are: 

'ain plur. 'ainain eye dain plur. dainain ear 
eed „ eedain hand rijl „ rijlain foot. 

Remark: To avoid confusion with the plural, the letter t is 
inserted before the dual ending: 
e. g. plur. "ain ain dual 'aintain two eyes. 

Substantives of four or more Consonants. 

§ 169. Besides those substantives which are derived from 
roots of three consonants, there are also some which have four or 

— 68 — 

more. Some of the nouns in No. 14 belong to this class of nouns 

having however a different plural. Many of these words are of 

foreign origin, while others are really participles cf. § 201. The 

plur. of all these nouns is formed by the insertion of a between 

the 2'^'^ and 3"* consonants, and of i in the S'*^ syllable: 

e. g. ta'lab plur. ta'alib. fox. 

"akrab scorpion 

boorko^b' face-veil 

chandak ditch 

chanjar dagger 

daftar note-book 

dimlij glass bracelet 

dirham dirhem (weight) 

dbbldotil hedgehog madfa' cannon mimbar chancel 

farsach ameasure(8.13Km.)malkat fire-tongs mish'al torch 

kbbnso^ol consul mansar view shankal book. 





sum of money 


machzau magazine, shop masjid 
maMan metal masna' 

madbah altar 
madfa' cannon 

manzil guest-house 
markab ship 

markaz centre 

temple (head) 



masnid sofa-bolster 

Note: zanbak plur. zanabik lily. 

The n, according to the universal rule, changes to m before h 
{cf. also § 168. 6 domb). 

§ 170. This plur. is used for the following nouns which have 

the same form as the above but with the endings e, i, or a: 
e. g. mashnaka plur. mashanik gallows, 

chdbnfse a beetle mahrame handkerchief mirwaha fan 

manshafe towel sinsli loose wall, 

maschara taunt [spine, chain 

mastara sample, ruler zalzali earthquake, 

matba^a printing-press makbara grave yard 

difda'a frog 

jimjmi skull 

madrase school 

mahbara inkstand 

§ 171. The following nouns with a between the 3"^ and 

4*^^ consonants take ee as the vowel of the last S3^11able; 
e. g. timsah plur. tmaseeh crocodile. 

birwaz frame mikdaf rudder mo1}tran bishop 

bot)St^n garden minchar nose ro'brbal sieve 

chol)lchal ankle-ring minkar beak shirwal native trousers 
finj4n Arab, coffee-cup mishwar drive, ride, walk sinsal chisel 

fo^ostan woman's dress mismar nail watwat bat 

miftah key misran intestine ZO'bnnar girdle, belt 

— 69 — 

Remark: The following nouns {cf. for the sing. § 171,) form 
the plur. like those in § 170. 
is war plur. asawir bracelet 'asfoor flur. 'asafeer sparrow 

Note also the words: 
shitan plur. shayateen devil, Satan soollam plur. salalim ladder 


nayasheen target, official decoration. 

§ 172. The following nouns which have oo in the last 
syllable follow in the plur. § 171. 
e. g. jardoou plur. jaradeen rat. 

dabboor hornet kalkool infant shoes matbooch 

any round thing majnoon idiot salta'on 

[or being maksood intention Sandook 

gecko maktoob letter sarsoor 

adze masroof expenditure zaFoom 




trunk, box 
cricket (insect) 

§ 173. The following nouns which have ee in the last syl- 
lable of the sing, form their plural like those in § 172. 
e. g. kalsheen plur. kalasheen galoshes. 

'afreet evil spirit, 




barmeel barrel 




hose of water-pipe 

chanzeer pig 





darweesh derwish 




litterary work 

dilfeen dolphin 





bachsheesh present 





§ 174. Some nouns fern, in form, having a long vowel in 
the 2°"^ syllable, form their plur. like those of § 173. 

They are mostly of foreign origin. 
e. g. bot)rnaita plur. baraneet hat. 
bot)ndaira flaa: 

bartoosha slipper 

bashnooka* head-cloth tied under chm 
kalloose priestly headdress 

matmoora** pit for grain 




embroidered jacket 

[for women 
head-cloth of the 

[fellah women 

*plur. also bshanit 
**plur. also matmoorat 
***a8 the 00 is a semi-vowel the plur. is jawareesh. 

— 70 — 

Note the plural forms of the following nouns 

batrak phir. batarka Patriarch soonisar plur. samasra or 
bankaji „ bnookjiyi banker 

dbsko^of „ asakfi bishop chaime 

filasoof ,, falasfi philosopher malak 
shammas „ shamamse deacon 

[so'omsariye broker 
chiyam tent 
malaike angel. 

The Adjective, 

es-sifa lit: quality 

§ 175. In addition to the regular adjective others may be 
formed from nouns by means of the nisbe cf. § 162, 


town ad) 

. baladi (m.) 

balad ije (f.) of the town 



riijali (m.) 

rijjaliye (f.) manly, intended for men 



niswani (m.) 

niswauiye (f.) womanly, for women 



koolli (m.) 

koolliye (f.) all together 




J00n00biye(f.) southern 



yomi (m.) 

yomiye (f.) daily 



rarbi (m.) 

rarbiye (f.) western 



sanawi (m.) 

sanawiye (f.) annual 

The fem. sing-, serves, at the same time, as the masc. plural. 
The fem. plur. is formed regularly; 
e. g. baladiye plur. baladiyat. 

Remark: 1. In the case of some adjectives of the "nisbe form" the 
letter w is inserted before the ending: 
e. g. ab father abawi paternal 



} banawi 













from Jaffa or man from J. 




„ Gaza „ „ „ G. 




„ Haifa „ „ „ H. 

*also "daily wages", kaddaish yomeetak "what are your daily wages?" 

71 — 

Remark: 2. Other adjectives of the same class insert an 
before the "iiisbe" ending {cf. also § 74.): 














desire, lust 


desirous, lus 













The Sound Plural. 

ij-jam' is-salim 

§ 176. The sound plural or ij-jam' is-salim (cf. § 158. 165) is 

1) of the ordinary adjectives: 

'itm dark 

kasi sharp 

mabhooh hoarse 

mabso^t^) satisfied, well 

machlook created 

ahli •) tame 

'ameek deep 

ameen faithful 

""asi tough 

bach eel stingy 

barri wild machloot mixed 

battal worthless madhoon painted 

chatib betrothed madi sharp 

Chishin rough, coarse makkar cunning 

faheem thoughtful marboot faulty 

fajj unripe masboot exact, solid 

farir hollow, empty masmooh permitted 

hafl barefoot mislim greasy 

hauoon compassionate mistwi ripe 

m'addal average 
m'afiin putrid, decayed 

moohtaram honoured 

moostkeem straight 

mrowwas pointed 

nafi' useful 

na'im delicate, soft 

rachis tender 







limp, slack 

fine, thin 





Note: habla plur. only hablat pregnant. 

') Adjectives ending iu i insert the letter // before the plur. ending 
e. g. ahli ; phir. ahliyeen (m.), ahliyat (f.). 

*)instead of ^. 

')Adjectives ending in oo change it in the plur. to ic: 
e. g. rachooj plur. racgween (m.), rachwat (f.j. 

— 72 ~ 
Remark: Compound adjectives of which the adjectives proper 

take the jam'is-salim: 
mo~OSh marshoosh unadulterated, genuine 
dayir bal + the pron. suff. attentive 
moosh badi disquiet 

rair shakoor ungrateful 

The following- compound adjectives are unchangeable: 

'ar-reek fasting (condition before breakfast) 
'ala ahsau tarz oi- 'al il-'al excellent. 

2) of adjectives ending in au: 
e. g. bardan plur. (m.) bardaiieen, (f.) bardanat cold. 

rair ma'dood 






mo^iish tivib 







mad (from dog) 

























3) of the following adjectives which omit the vowel between 
the 2^ and 3'** radical: 

e. g. fadil plur. (m.) fadleen, (f.) fjidlM excellent 
'akil kind 'alim learned. 

These adjectives form also another plur. ace. to ^ 179. 

The Broken Plural. 

jam' et-takseer. 

§ 177. The following adjectives form the plur. ace. to § 168. 1. 
e.g. kadeem plur. ko'bdm, f. plur. kadeeniat old (not used ofman or beast) 
rasheem inexperienced habeel crazy 'ateek old 

Remark: The fem. plr^ . of all adjectives is always jam' 
salim; however, the masc. plur. is generally used instead; c/". also 
§ 107. 165. 2. 

§ 178. The following adjectives form their plur. like the 
substantives in § 168. 3. 









- 73 - 

e. g. shareef plur. shdbrafa noble. 

ameeil faithful faheem understanding 

'aseem* celebrated fakeer poor 

bacheel stingy hakeem wise 

d'eef weak kareem* liberal 

§ 170. A few adjectives form the plur. by the insertion of 
00 in the first and of a in the last syllable and the doubling of 
the 2'>d radical, (cf, also § 168. 9 Nouns): 

e. g. shatir plur. sho'bttar clever, diligent 

hazik skilful k^sir under age kafir wicked jahil ignorant 

§ 180. Adjectives denoting colours and physical defects form 
the plur. in the following manner: 


colours, e. g. 





















































as far 



















2) physical defects: e. g. 
m. abras plur. boors leprous m. ahdab plur. ho^odb hunchbacked 

f. barsa 







m. a'raj 



lame m. 





f. 'arja 







m a'war 



one-eyed m. 





f. '6 wra or 






Remark: The masc. plur. is, in both cases, commonly employed 
instead of that of the feminine. 

"plur. also ace. to § 181 a. 
*plur. also ace. to § 181 b. 

— 74 — 

§ 181. 1) The following adjectives substitute a for ee between 
the 2°"^ and S""*^ rad. and omit — if there be one — the vowel after 
the l^t consonant: 

e. g. kbeer plur. kbar great, big 











































Note also: sa'b plur. s'ab heavy dachm plur. dcham thick 

2) The following adjectives, otherwise like those in No 1, 
suffix in the plur. a: 































§ 182. The following adjectives add the prefix and sujfix 
a to the singular: 

e. g. kawi plur. akwia strong 

radi evil rani* rich shaki mischievous taki pious 

§ 183. English adjectives denoting materials are expressed 
by the corresponding nouns preceded by min "of, from," occasionally 
by simply adding the ending i to the noun. 

€. g. hareersiik 


hareer or 



soof wool 


soof „ 



k6b\n cotton 


ko^otn „ 



Ijadeed iron 


hadeed „ 



"has also the plur. fanaya 

— 75 — 

Remark 1. The Arabic language is not rich in adjectives 
expressing a moral idea; compound phrases are therefore frequently 
used, {cf. § 129) such as: 

kbeer^er-ras pig-hended, stiff-necked 

kaleel^el-adab uucuitured 

kaleel_, el-hay a impertinent 

ralees^ed-danab cocksure {lit thick of tail) 

mleeh^el-kalb kind-hearted 

tkeel^ed-damm boring {lit: heavy of blood) 

taweel^er-rooh long-suffering 

Remark 2. The following form may also be used to express the 
same idea. In this construction the noun may be put in the plur. 
the adjective follows it in the same number and gender; {cf. § 
194); the sing, of both noun and adjective is preferable: 
e. g. r^SO kbeer Ut: his head is big, for, he is pig-headed 

^dabho^on kaleeleen [ ^'*' ^^^"' ^"^^^^'^^ ^'^ ""^^ 

^,. I for, they are uncultured; 

adabhoon kaleel ^>t'- their culture is little. 

Syntactical and other Remarks. 

The Noun. 


§ 184. A noun may be determined by the article, a personal 
pronoun, or another noun. 

§ 185. If a noun is qualified by several adjectives, they are 
connected by the conjugation wa or u: 

e.g. en-natoor_el-ameen w^il-kawi w^il-mleeli The faithful, strong, 

and good watchman. 

§ 186. When a noun, which is qualified by an adjective, is 
followed by another noun in the genitive, the adj. is placed after 
the second noun: 
e.g. jooch el-biya' el-abrash The grey cloth of the dealer. 

bait il-basha_l-mleeh The beautiful house of the Pasha. 

boostaU^il-bo'OStanji^j-jameel The luxuriant garden of the gardener. 

— 76 — 

§ 187. When a uoun m the genitive is qualified by an 
adjective, the adjective is placed after it: 
e. g. bait _,er- raj obi el-rani The house of the rich man. 

karam_il-ameer esh-shareef The liberality of the noble emir. 

§ 188. When two uouus, the second being in the genitive, 
are both qualified by adjectives, the adjectives come last in the 
sentence in the order of the nouns to which they belong; cf. §§ 
186. 187. 

e. g. jobch,_el-biya' el-abrash el-raui The giey cloth of the lich dealer. 
faras^el-badawi_l-kawiye^S-reereThestrongmareof theyoungBeduin. 

§ 189. An alternative construction with mi "which" is in 
frequent use: 

e.g. ej-joocl I ^el-abrash illi la^l-biya' The grey cloth which is to (^belongs 

to) the rich dealer, 
el-faras^el-kawiye illi la_l-badawi_s-sreer 

The strong mare which is to (- belongs to) the young Beduiu. 

The Possessive Case. 

§ 190. The construction in which a noun is limited by an- 
other noun in the possessive case, or by a suffixed pronoun, is called 
in Arabic, idafe ""addition". The article is omitted in the idafe before 
the noun which is limited, while the noun standing, in English, 
in the Genitive receives it. 

e. g. maktOOb^et-tol)rjO"'oman The letter of the dragoman. 

bd'OStan^el-chawaja The garden of the gentleman. 

tarbobsh^iKaskari The tarboosh of the soldier. 

wata^l-fallah The shoes of the peasant. 

§ 191. The form of the first noun is not changed in the 
idafe unless 

(a) it is feminine, when the ending i, e, or a becomes t: 
e.g. sa'at_,ed-dahab The gold watch; odat^er-rajo'ol The room of the man. 

'dblbe box; 'dblbti my box. reeshi pen; reeshti my pen. 

(b) the first noun ends in i, or iye when the ending is 
changed in the idafe to get or iyet: 

e. g, shamsiye, shamseet^el-dbcht The parasol of the sister, 
kabliye, kableet^il-mareed The appetite of the sick. 

— 77 — 

jamMye, jam'iyit^il-Volama The assembly of the learned. 

or shamsiyet, kabliyet, jam'iyet. 

§ 192. If, the case of a fern, noun which stands in the 
idafe, two OF more consonants come together, a helping vowel is 
inserted before the fem. ending- t, cj-. § 191. 
e. g. shakfe, shaktit^ej-janzeer a piece of chain. 

bandora, bandorit jarna The tomato of our neighbour. 

bakara bakarit^er-ra'i The cow of the herdaman. 

Remark : The word beni occurs only in the idafe: 

e.g. beni sachr the ■'BemSachr"^«Y; sons of Sachr, an Arab tribe. 

The Adjective. 


§ 193 The attributive adjective takes the article, if the noun 
to which it belongs is determined. 

e. g. el-bait _,el-kbeer The big house; el-mara^s-sa'eede The happy woman 
el-'amm^el-chiyir The liberal uncle, farasak es-sareefe Your beautiful mare. 

§ 194-. The adjective, attributive and predicative, agrees in 
gender and number with its noun: 

e. g. el-bot)ldan_el-kbar The large countries; el-bral es-srar The small mules. 
el-OWlad kbar The boys are big ; el-alwah SOOd The slates are black. 

The Verb. 

el-fi'l lit: the doing. 
§ 195. The Verb agrees with its noun in gender and number: 

e. g. er-rjal rij'oo "a^shoorlho'bm The men returned to their work. 

el-0"OCht kamat 'an^el-ko*orsi The sister rose fiom the chair, 

el-'asakir rahoo 'al-mdeene The soldiers went into the city, 

el-klab lihsoo ed-damm The dogs licked the blood. 

§ 196. The predicate, instead of following, may precede 
the subject: 

e. g- shirboo^j-jmal The camels drank. 

ijoo^l-msafreeu The travellers came. 

— 78 — 

haraboo_l-har&miye The thieves fled, 

taroo^n-nahlat The bees flew away. 

§ 197. When two verbs are dependent upon the same 
nominative they follow it, as in English : 

e. g. el-fallaheenharatOOll^zara'oo The peasants ploughed and sowed. 

§ 198. 'animal, or its abbreviation 'am "doing", with the impf., 
conveys the idea that someting is being done, or is happening at 
the moment of speaking: 

e. g. 'am btikra Are you reading? 'ammal tchiyit She is sewing. 
'am niktib We are writing 'ammal yidhakoo They are laughing. 

Remark: The same idea may be conveyed by repeating the 
subject of the sentence as a pers. pron. suffixed to 'ammai: 
e. g. 'ammalha tirsil? Is she washing? 'aramalha timsali* she is scrubbing. 

§ 199. The participle raih of rah "to go", with the impf. 
indicates that some one is about to do something, or that some- 
thing is about to happen: 

e. g. raih bakra I am going to read, raiha tistreeh she is going to rest, 
raiheen ishimmoo_l-hawa They are going to take a drive, 

raiheen nakot)l We are about to dine. 

§ 200. The participles jai, of aja "to come", and tabi. of taba' 
"to follow", with the article, express, like iiii with a pers. pron., 
{cf. § 29) "the following, the next, the coming:" 
e. g. el-yom ej-jai The coming day. el-malik ej-jai The next king. 
el-harf_et-tabi' The next following letter. 

An exception is: ej-jobm'a^t-tara The coming, lit: rising, week. 

§ 201. The participles frequently correspond to an English 
substantive or adjective: 

e. g, katib writer; kaflr unbeliever hakim judge, 

matloob demand maktoob letter ma'moor official 

''means also, "to plane wood". 

— 79 — 

§ 202. The participles, in conjunction witii a separate 
pronoun, express a condition or state, corresponding to our present 
or past tenses: 

e. g. hee t^bcha She is cooking, hee '^mli liraouada Sheia making lemonade, 
hoo niarsoob He was being forced, nalma makbooleen We are accepted. 

§ 20ii. The infinitive following a verb must always be 
translated in Arabic by the impf. agreeing with the subject in 
number and gender. The Arabic infinitive is a noun, and is not 
used in the dialect as a verb form; {cf. also §§ 155. 201): 
e.g. jarrab inoott 'an_,el-hait He attempted to jump over the wall 
{lit: he attempted, he jumps over the wall). 
biddna nishtril We wish to work {lit: we wish we work). 

For other illustrations see § 211. 

§ 204. The past, tense— our impf. — may be expressed by kan 
with the imperfect: 

e. g. kan yikra He read kan yivmi He threw kan yinsa He forgot; 

koonna nrattil We sang (hymns) koont tisbali You swam koout amshi I ran. 

205. Our pluperfect is expressed by kan with the present 

e. g. kanoo fatheen_,el"bab lamma koonna naimeen 
They had opened the door while we slept 
koonna m'owkeeno yom We had delayed him one day. • 

§ 206. The future is expressed 

1) by the imperfect tense, 
e. g. bashoof = I see or I will see. 

2) by rayih (m.), raiha (f.), raiheen (plur.) with the imperfect 


e. g. rayih yi'zimna He will visit us. raiha tzoorna She will visit us. 
raiheen inrajji' We shall return the book. 

3) by bidd {cf. § 116 Remark) 

§ 207. Our future perfect is expressed by the imperfect of 

kiin, yikoon, placed before the pres. participle: 

— 80 — 
e.g. binkoon imkaddfeen ntfbss farsach. We shall have rowed half a 

farsach. (1 farsach - 8,13 Km.), 
bitkoonoo tchallasto minilO You will be relieved of him. 

§ 208. The irapf. tense is used in conditional sentences, 
which are introduced with lamma or Ma: 

e. g. kaddaish baddi afrah lamma bijeebo How I would rejoice if he 

should bring it! 

e. g. kaddaish bitriyar il-hal ida bisafir il-basha min hon. How the 
conditions would change if the Pasha would go from here! 

§ 209. Hypothetical sentences are introduced by low the 
verb being in the imperfect. If a pronoun follows, in, before pron. 
suffixes inn, is inserted: 

e. g. low inno birja' kobnna mnifrah if he would return we should rejoice, 
low biji_^r-rajo"ol kobnna minkaddiralo hadiye if the man 

would come we should give him a present. 

§ .210. The imperative form can never be used with a nega- 
tion, the imperfect with la or ma is used instead: 

e. g. la tot)trdbksh ishabak Do not forsake your friends. 

la tikta'sh ij-jisir Do (plur.) not cross {lit: cut) the bridge, 

la tisbahsh fi^U-nahr You shall not bathe in the river. 

la titla'oosh la barra el-yom Do not go out to-day. 

ma tro'ohsh min hon Do not go away from here. 

§ 211. The English "let us" is rendered by the inperatives 
imshi "go" yalla"come!" in the pers. and number of the addressed. 
The verb which follows, the Eng. infinitive, is put in the impf. 
(§ 203.) "ms" becoming its subject. 

e.g. imshoo nitrook _ il-bait Let us leave the house (Nt: go ye, we leave 

the house), 
yalla nrooli barra Let us go outside. 

Remark: "Let" for "to permit" is challa; for the conjuga- 
tion cf. § 137,2; it must always have a personal pronoun. 

e. g. cha]leeho1)m yistreehoo Let them rest (Ut: let them, they rest). 

challeena na'mal has-safra Let us take this journey {Ut: let us, we 

do this journey). 


- 81 — 

§ 212. The impersonal form of expression is rendered always 
by a personal: 

1) by the 3''^ pers. plural: 

e. g, rahoo one went biroohoo one goes 

kaloo one said, it was said bikooloo one says, it is said. 

The Arabic is therefore equivalent to the colloquial "they 
say", and "they said", for one says, and one said: 

2) by wahad "some one": 

e. g. wahad kad^el-chail Some one led the horses round 

wahad min^el-aMa 'imlo Some one of the enemies has done it. 

3) by el-wahad. which is like the impersonal "one": 

e. g. el-wahad ma byikdar yishrab^el-inai One cannot drink the water 
el-wahad ma byikdar yisbah la tani mail One cannot swim to the other side. 

4) by the personification of the impersonal pronoun: 

e. g. ed-dinya 'am btitlij The world is snowing l. e. it is snowing 

ed-dinya 'am btishti The world is raining i. e. it is raining. 

§ 213. The VII Form is the regular Passive Voice of the 
Vulgar Arabic, cf. § 144. The regular "Strong Verbs" of the 
I Form which in the active impf. have ^ in the 2°^^ syllable, cf. §§ 
1 13. 1. 2; 115, have however the usual passive voice for the Present 
and Future, formed by substituting a for i in the 2^^ syllable of 
the imperfect. The Past is expressed by the VII Form: 

e. g. katal Impf. Act. byiktil, Impf. Pass, byiktal 

hamal „ „ byihmil ,, „ byihmal 

katab „ „ byiktib „ „ byiktab. 

Remark 1. The present and future tenses, passive voice, 
may be expressed also by the personal pronoun with the past 
participle : 

e. g. ana madroob I am beaten or I shall be beaten 

int matrood You are expelled or You will be expelled. 

Remark 2. The past tense, passive voice, may be expressed, 
in addition to the VII F., by kan and the past participle: 

A Manual of Palestinean Arabic. 6 

— 82 — 
e. g. kobnna madroobeen We were beaten. 

wain kdbntOO majrooheen where were you wounded? 

kauoo ma'zooleen min hadak esh-shahr 
They were deposed since last month. 

3. The future teuse, passive voice, may also be expressed 
by yikoon and the past participle: 

e. g. bdbkra bikoon el-'adoo marloob The enemy will be beaten to-morrow. 

b^'d moodde kaseere bikoon msa'ad in a short time he will be helped. 

§ 214. Adverbial phrases, or adverbs, are often put at the 
beginning of the sentence together with the predicate; 

e.g. la wain harab el-mahboos Whither has the prisoner fled? 

fl^l-masa akaloo They dined in the evening. 

ho^Dnak kanat reeshti My pen was there. 

bookrabiroohoo_n-nas'al-koods The people will go to-morrow to Jeru- 

The Auxiliary Verbs "to have" and "to be". 

§ 215. The present tense of "to have" is formed, as we have 
seen (c/l §§ 68. 69.), by means of certain prepositions, the past 
tense by the addition of kan, and the future tense by the addition 
of bikoon cf. § 126. I. 

§ 216. The auxiliary verb '•'to be", in certain English con- 
structions, must, as we have seen, be rendered also by a preposition 
{cf. § 71); the Arabic language possesses no verb for it. 

Remark 1. The English inipf. wa?, is rendered by kan, and 
the future will he by bikoon, the impf. of kan. 

Remark 2. kan is frequently used in combination with the 
preposition li and the pers. pronoun, in which case it is shortened, 
c/. also§ 218: 
e. g. kanlo he had /. e. possessed. 

§ 217. The verb kan with ma or ma generalizes interrogative 
pronouns and adverbs with which it may be connected: 
e. g. meen ma kan whoever it be aimta ma, kan whenever it be 

83 — 

§ 218. The conditional "if I am" 
following forms : 

in kanni {or ko'ont ) 

in kannak ( „ ko'bnt ) 

in kaunik ( „ kobnti ) 

in kanno ( „ kan ) 

in kanha ( „ kanal ) 

in kanna ( „ kdbnna ) 

in kanko'om 
in kanho^om 

kanoo ) 

etc. is expressed by the 

If I am 
„ you are (m.) 
„ you are (f.) 
„ he is 
„ she is 
„ we are 
„ you are 
„ they are 


§ 319. The Verb §ar "to become", cf. § 1 26. 2, is employed in 
various ways: 

1) It is used with a participle or adjective, instead of an 
intransitive verb, to express the condition or state, of some one 
or something: 

sar makdoob it is pierced. 
skr 'iyan He is ill. 

They become faithful. 
He becomes joyful. 

2) It has also the meaning of to begin to do a thing: 
sar yisbah He began to swim, biseer yimshi He begins to walk, 
minseer nihki fransawi We begin to speak French. 

Sarat til'ab She began to play. 

sar marloot It is faulty. 

Sar sakran He is drunk. 
biseeroo dbmana 
biseer farhan 


Remarkr This construction, in the perf. only, may also 
mean to attain to the doing of what is conveyed by the verb: 

e. g. Sar yisbah may mean also, he can swim. 

3) gar or gayir (act. part.) followed by li, with the personal 
pronoun, expresses the idea of "to have": 

e. g. Sar li waja' ras I tiave a headache. Sar lak sho'brl? Did you get work? 
sar li shahr rayih It is a month that I have been away from here, 
lit: It has become to me a month that I went from here. 

Note the i)hrases: 

shoo biseer What will happen? shoO sar What has happened? 

shoo Sayir what is happening? shoo rayih iseer What will happen? 


— 84 — 

§ 220. If a verb follows upon another verb {cf. also §208), the 
second verb loses its prefix hi, b or m as the case may be: 
e. g. bareed arooli kawam i wish to go quickly 

ma bakdir aji^l-y5m I cannot come to-day. 

For other illustrations cf. § 203. 

§ 221. Diminutives are used in the Dialect, only in a few 
terms of endearment and depreciation, nicknames and proper names: 
e.g. o^olaid little child 'wain little eye 

Sfiyar little one Sdair little breast 

hlaiwa a fine looking person (man or woman) 

Z air small person {lit: little tail) iktaish said of one who has lost 
a member of the body, from katash to cut off 
ibaid said of a person of dark complexion, from abd negro. 

Proper names: 

d'aibis from da'bo'bs imbecile hsain from hasan Hasan 

hnain „ l.ianna Hanna irnaim „ the .verb rinim gain 

zbaidi „ zibdi butter shliaibir „ „ „ shahbar scratch 

no'bSS ijbail, a village nearNablus, lit: half a little mountain. 

§ 222. The nouns aboo father, o^omm mother, ibn sou, bint daugh- 
ter and §ahib friend are used to denote some prominent fact in 
regard to them which may be abstract or concrete: 

e. g. aboo kabra Father of pride, /. e. an overbearing person. 

aboo batn or karsh Father of the belly, i. e. a glutton. 

O'omm ifjoor Mother of quarrel, i. e. a quarrelsome woman. 

sahib akl Friend of understanding, i. e. an intelligent person. 

sahib namoOS Friend of the law i. e. an honourable man. 

ibn haram Son of the forbidden /. c. scoundrel. 

bint jah Daughter of air i. e. prostitute. 

Such phrases may be used either in the masc. or fem. and 
must sometimes be rendered in English by an adjective cf. § 183 
Remark I. 

Part Second 

Phrases Conversation 


— 87 — 

il-fi'l "sar' 

I. il-wakt il-hadir 

ana joo'Hn 


inl shatir or mijthid 

inti 'iyaiie or mareeda 

il-kalb ameen u faheem 

hoo mkiyif 

il-bint^is-sreere fl^l-bait 

hiye na'sane 

nihna bardaneen 

intoo ta'baneen 

hoom hamdeen 

il-'inab mtfbsh mistwi 

id-dtfbrrak ba'do achdar 

il-ward ahmar 

iz-zanbak abyad 

id-doolab imdowwar 

sath or wijh il-mai hadi 

har-rajobl moosh mhaddab 

id-deeb w_it-ta'lab hiwauat 

ij-jamal w^il-barl hiwauat baitiye 

hsabo moosh masboot 
tabariya b'eede 'an^il-koods 
ba'd b'eed min hon la baitna 
ba'd ma sarat soochne 
il-mai fatre 
ish-shoraba sdbchne 
it-taks shob 
il-bachchobi no' so'omr 
is-salam barake kbeere 
is-sadaka kdbwe 
objo^'Grto or karooto kaleele 
shbeene mleeh ma'i 

The Verb "to be'* 

1. Present Tense: cf. §§ 68 ff. 
215 sq. 

I am hungry (m.). 

I am thirsty (f.). 

You are diligent (m. sing.). 

You are ill (f. sing.). 

The dog is faithful and intelligent. 

He is happy. 

The little girl is at home. 

She is sleepy. 

We are cold. 

You are tired (plur.). 

They are sour. 

The grapes are not ripe. 

The peaches are still green. 

Eoses are red. 

Lilies are white. 

A wheel is round. 

The surface of the water is smooth. 

This man is uneducated. 

The wolf and the fox are wild 

The camel and the mule are 

domestic animals. 
His bill is incorrect. 
Tibeiias is far from Jerusalem. 
It is still a long way to our home. 
It is not yet warm (water). 
The water is luke-warm. 
The soup is hot. 
The weather is hot. 
Incense is a kind of gum. 
Peace is a great blessing. 
Friendship is strength. 
His wages are small. 
My godfather is good to me. 

— 88 ~ 

il-fihris or il-lailia bala ralat 
doolab-ilbiyara jdeed 
ko''orbaj^il-chi3'al kaseer 
il-balat mills 
falleenet hadl_l-kanneene 

hamm hal-oojak kteer 
il-ahram bnayat facheeme. 

miyet balir^^il-miyet mallia 
11-obrdo'on nahr kbeer 
rfoof il-kootb matlaneen 

The list is faultless. 

The water-wheel is new. 

The whip of the rider is short. 

Flagstones are flat. 

The cork of this bottle is broken. 

The heat of this stove is great. 
The pyramids are majestic 

The water of the Dead-Sea is salt. 
The Jordan is a big river. 
The book-shelves are full. 

II. il-wakt il-madi 

koont fee libnan 

ko^ont tafran minha 

koonti wikha 

kan barid kteer 

kanat hafye 

koonua fee baitak hadak^il-yom 

ma kot)ntoosh abadan farhaneen 

fl hada 
kanoo owlad sahibna 

meen kan hoonak? 

iaish is-sooltau kan sho^oja' 

ua'am hoo kan wazeer iz-zira'a 

koonna haznaneen 'alaih or 'alaiha 
il-mai kanat watye or raa kanat 

is-sarame kanoo makneen 
ir-rajool kan baMo 'ar-reek 
il-hakeem kan hou imbarha 
hoo kan ma^na 
'ammitna kanat fi^J-bot»stan 

II. Past Tense: c/. §§ 2l.j sq. 

I was in the Lebanon. 
You (m. sing.) were angry with her. 
You (f. sing.) were impertinent. 
He was very slow (lit: cold). 
She was barefoot. 
We were at your (m.) house on 
that day. 
You (plur.) were never happy 

about this. 
They were the children of our 

Who was there? 
The army of the Sultan was brave. 
Yes, he was minister of agri- 
We were sad about it (m. or {.). 
The water was low, (or, not high). 

The shoes were durable {lit: firm). 
The man was still fasting. 
The doctor was here yesterday. 
He was with us. 
Our (paternal) aunt was in the 


— 89 — 

kanat tool in-nh4r fi^l-madrase 
kot)oua owwal imbareh fi karye 
'arabiye sreere 
laish ma koonteesh fi_l-'azeeme 
il-laile il-madye 
hobni ma kaiioosh kaslaueeu 
ish-sharreele kanoo mtfbjtihdeen 
k^n 'ammal or 'amm yfrak 
kail waliad hamil 
kaiioo soofr iiiitl_il-miteen 
odit^il-markab kanat m'attati 

kauoo robraba fi hal-blad 
kan fi hot)iiak makateeb la abooye 
is-sliobn il-mkassareen kanoo Ttak 
slobko kali mftir 
il-kalb kail marboot fi_l-chaime 
il-raiiam w^il-mfza kanoo il-yom 

is-so1)bli fi hadak il-hakl 
il-chail ma kanoosh hon 
bakarat_il-fallali kanat sreere 

ibni kan il-yom fl^l-madrase 
it-talaraeed kanoo imbarili ma' 

m'allimhoon fi 'ain tara 
kan ahsan Sahib ill 
il-miftali kan fi^l-ral 
il-mazhariye kanat fi chazanet 
ir-roozname kanat 'ala^l-liait 
il-ale kanat fi jaibto 
ish-shabaki kanat fi^l-boostan 

il-kastal il-ma'dani ma kansh hon 
il-kadobs kan 'ind il-fachobre 

mii kansh fi fi fi^l-hakl 

ma kansh fi bol^rhau 'ala rishsho 

She was the whole day at school. 
We were the day before yester- 
day in a little Arabic village. 
Why were you not at the recep- 
tion last night? 
They were not lazy. 
The workmen were diligent. 
He was sweating. 
He was a good-for-nothing. 
They were deathly pale. 
The cabin was nicely furnished. 

They were strangers in this land. 
There were letters for my father. 
The broken plates were old. 
His conduct was reprehensible. 
The dog was tied to the tent. 
The sheep and goat were this 
morning in that field. 
The horses were not here. 
The farmer's cow was young. 

My son was at school to-day. 
The pupils with their teacher 

were yesterday at "Ain Fara. 
He was my best friend. 
The key was in the lock. 
The flower-bowl was in the cup- 
The calendar was on the wall* 
The instrument was in his pocket* 
The hammock (lit: net) was in 
the garden. 
The metal pipe was not here. 
The (earthenware) pipe was at 
the potter's. 
There was no shade in the field. 
There was no proof of his deception. 

— 90 - 

il-yom is-so"obh ko*orma ind il- We were this morning at the ruins. 

il-owlad kanoo fl iKfoss is-sakye The boys were in the middle of 

the brook, 
il-mooncho'bl kan fi eedha The flour-sieve was in her hand, 

il-choorj ma kansh fl^l-machzau The saddle-bags were not in the 

ma kansh fl masari fadda fl jisdani There was no silver in my purse. 

III. il-wakt ij-jaye IIL Future Tense: cf. §216 R. 

bakoonbobkrabakkeerli_l-mdeene I shall be in town to-morrow 


bitkoou lajo^tl mfeed ida btibka You (m. sing.) will be a useful 

mashi ala^d-darb il-mleeha man if you continue to walk 

in the right path, 
ma bitkooneesh owwal bint fi You will never be the first girl 

safiik in your class, 

il-bisse ma Vomrha bitkoon ameene A cat will never be so faithful 
mitl^il-kalb as a dog. 

minkoon ho^onak ida ma shattatsh We shall be there if it will 

not rain. 
You will be strangers in that 

They will be the leaders of their 


We shall be no obstacle to your 

• ambition. 

bitkoonoo rooraba fi hadeek 

biko'onoo koowjid sha'bholjn 

ma minkdbnsh sabab 'aktak 'an 
hoobb is-shdbhra 

btichsar ida ko'ont btitba' amyalak You will be a loser if you follow 

your inclinations, 
bikoon min shani mitl ach He will be a brother to me. 

The Verb "to have" 

T. Present Tense: 
a) formed with 'ind cf. § 68. 
I have a loaf of bread. 
You (m. sing.) have cheese and 

You (f. sing.) have a writing-book. 

'ind, ma', li 
I. il-wakt il-hadir 
a) mrakkab ma' "ind" 
indi rreef cho^obz 
indak jdbbne u zibde 

'indik daftar kitabe 

91 — 

'in do 

*mdo seeniye 
j'mdha salle sreere 
I'indna ibre u chait 
I'jndkoom shoke u ma^laka 
rindhoom chazaiiet ty^b mleeha 
I'iiido ktab sobwar? 
Mndha shamsiye soda 
*indkot)m ko^oshtban? 
'indho^oni sikkeeii u balta 
Mndna soofra ii karasi 
ma Mndho-om sharch 
'in dak wakt? 
Mndi wakt kaleel 

jahsh (m.) 

jal.ishe (f.) 

il-mkari 'iudo bral 

ma 'iiidash lisaii wala moohr, 

'indna masket reeshe u hibr 
ma MndhooDsh riyash walakio klain 

i!-ot»m 'inda marwaliat reesh na'am 

il-oocht Mnda zihre 
il-bo'ostaaje 'indo kawa^veer 
'indi koowar kishane 
Indna fanajeen w_ishoou 
Mudik fiujan ii sahn 
chali 'indo 'arabiye 
ma 'indeesh kfoof 
il-fa'el ma 'indbbsh fas 

He has a tray. 

She has a little basket. 

We have a needle and thread. 

You have a fork and spoon. 

They have a nice ward-robe. 

Has he a picture book? 

She has a black parasol. 

Have you (f. pi.) a thimble? 

They have a knife and hatchet 

We have a table and chairs. 

They have no axe. 

Have you (m. sing.) time? 

I have little time. 

or kdbrro'osh He has a young donkey. 

The mukari has mules. 

She has no horse and no foal, 


We have a penholder and ink. 
They have no pens, but lead- 
The mother has a fan of ostrich- 
The sister has a flower. 
The gardener has flower-pots. 
I have a china-flowerpot. 
We have cups and plates. 
You -J.) have one cup and one plate. 
My maternal uncle has a carrriage. 
1 have no gloves. 
The workman has no lioe. 

b) mrakkab ma" ''ma" 
ma ma'eesh masari 
ma'o mijwiz 
ma'ha shakfit cholDbz? 
ma'ha izar 
in-najjar ma'o masameer 

b) formed with ma' cf. § 68. 
I have no money. 
He has a double-flute. 
Has she a piece of bread? 
She has an izar. 
The carpenter has nails. 

— 92 — 

il-'askari ma'o bo"ondaira u tabl 
il-bint ma'ha satl 
ma'na ka'k 

il-chaddaine ina'ha fteele? 
il-mhaudis ma'o sillam 
il-bauDa ma'o mastareen 
il-beetar ma o hadwe 
ma ma'kobnsh la dot)chchan wala 

ma'ak haweu 

la, ma'na jtfbrn 
il-mbiyid ma'o barari 
il- msowwir ma'o fd'orshai 
"ammal is-sakakeen ma'o makassat 
u sakakeen 
il-mara ma'ha kabkoob cheetan 
is-sayer ma'o kammashe 
ir-rjal ma'hoou barreeme la^l- 

meen ma'o mamlaha 
il-owlad ma'ho'bn kobrsi sreer 
il-bint ij-jameele ma'ha swara 
ra'i^l-ranam ma'o charoof sreer 
il-hallak ma'o moos u tasmi 
il-katib ma'o daftar mlahasat 
il-'arbaji ma'o ko^orbaj 
il-haddad ma'o mhadde 

il-hajjar ma'o matabbi 
il-charrat ma'o mooashar 

c) mrakkab ma' "li" 

il-m'allim ilo ma'arif 
il-kadi ilo fahm (liikme) 
il-istad ilo^ichtibar 
il-miehtiri' ilo irade 
itr^abeeb ilo mahara 

The soldier has a flag and drum 
The girl has a pail. 
We have cake. 

Has the servant (f.) a lamp-wick? 
The builder has a ladder. 
The mason has a trowel. 
The farrier has a horse-shoe. 
They have neither tobacco nor pipe 

Have you (m. sing.) a metal 

No, we have a stone mortar. 
The tinsmith has screws. 
The painter has a brush. 
The cutler has scissors and knives. 

The woman has a ball of thread. 
The goldsmith has a pair of pincers. 
The men have a corkscrew. 

Who has a salt-cellar? 
The children have a stool. 
The beautifnl girl has a bracelet. 
The shepherd has a lamb. 
The barber has a razor and a strop. 
The writer has a note-book. 
The driver has a whip. 
The blacksmith has a sledge 

The stone-cutter has a hammer. 
The joiner has a saw. 

c) formed with "li" cf. § 68. 

The teacher has knowledge. 
The judge has wisdom. 
The professor has experience. J 
The inventor has energy. ^ 

The physician has skill. 

— 93 — 

ish-sha'ir ilo mtfbjoon 
Ihada^sh-shabb ilo idrak 
jhadeek il-bint ila sabr 
ma ilosh eemau 
ma ilha or ila fadayel 
il-ralib nia ilosh farah 
Una tika fi koodirtak 

ma ildbnsh idrak la fahm rooh 


ilkoom tabee'a zihrawiye 
Una amal nshoofak 'an kareeb 

II. il-wakt il-madi 
kanli idn miu abooi or abooye 

kanat maM baroodet 'ammi 
kan ma'ak ij-jisdan 
kan ma'ik kol)l ishi 
kauat ma'ak il-bo"ole or warakat 

faris ma kansb ma'o_^l-habl it- 


nasir kan ma'o izmeel n sharch 


kan ila ko'oshtban u oobar 
in-niswan kan 'iudhot»n rabtet 

rakabe shalabiye? 
kan ilna daloo jdeed 
ma kansh 'indna ishi 

kan 'indkol3n dawab tiybe? 

kan 'indhoon chail tiybe kteer 
il-chaddamat kan ma'hol3n 

sharayet rabara 
il-kot)btan kanlo karib 

The poet has wit. 

This youth has understanding. 

That maiden has patience. 

He has no faith. 

She has no virtue. 

The victor has no joy. 

We have confidence in your 

They have no insight into human 

You have a happy disposition. 
We have hope of seeingyou soon. 

II. Past Tense: cf. § 69. 

I have the pei-missiou from my 

I had my (paternal) uncle's gun. 
You (m. sing ) had the pui se. 
You (f. sing.) had everything. 
Had you the postage-stamp? 

Faris had not the thick rope. 

Xasirhadachisel and a sharp axe. 

She had a thimble and needles. 
The woman had a beautiful 

We had a new bucket. 
We had nothing. 
You (f. sing.) had the broom and 

Had you (plur.) good riding 

They had very quiet horses. 
The maid-servants had dusters. 

The captain had a boat. 

— 94 — 

il-bo^ombashi kanlo saif 
wakeel il-manara ma kansh ma'o 

kanlik ddbmmet ward 
it-tabbacba kan 'indha kidre 

il-haramiye kan ma'ho'on dababees 
il-hr^m kan fih choozk min mail 

la mail 
il-kandeel ma kansh fib kaz 
il-fanoos ma ilo kazaz 
is-sako kan fih chtfbzk fi^l-ko'omm 

III. wakt il-istikbal. 

bikoon 'indi wakt 

bikoon Mndi takm ijdeed 

bikoon "indak soora 

bitreed ikoon 'indak bsat ijdeed? 

bikoon 'iudo fara 

miryam ma bikot)nsh "indha tob 

ijdeed has-sana 
bikoon 'indna mai taza ii tamar 

bikoon ilna bot)kra dars 
ma bikolDnsh ilkot)m matrah 
bikoon 'indhot)n chamseen frank, 
ma biko'bnsh ilho'on abadau tika 

fi insan kaddab 
is-sikke bikoon flha rol)kkab ktar 

il-mjallid bikoon 'indo warak 

bikoon 'indo kaitiye hamra 
'an kareeb bikoon 'indna 'inab 
bikoon indi Ihafat min harder 
bikoon 'indha bait mrattab mleeli 
bikoon Indhd'ou saif mnashshif 

The major had a sword. 

The lighthouse-man had no light. 

You had (f.) a bouquet of roses. 
The cook had an earthen cooking. 

The thieves had clubs. 
The ceiling had a crack from 

one end to the other. 
The lamp had no oil. 
The lantern has no glass. 
The coat had a hole in the sleeve. 

III. Future Tense c/". § 286. 1. 

I shall have time. 
I shall have a new suit. 
You (m. sing.) will have a picture. 
Will you (f. sing.) have a new 


He will have a plane. 

Mary will not have a new dress 

this year. 

We shall have fresh water and fruit. 

Shall we have lessons to-morrow? 
You will not have room. 
They v\ill have 40 francs. 
They will never have confidence 
in a liar. 
The train will have many 

The bookbinder will have coloured 

He will have a red head-cloth. 
We shall soon have grapes. . 
I will have silk bed-covers. 
She will have a convenient house. 
They will have a dry summer. 

— 95 — 

hikoon ilak ada hasoodeen 
bikoon 'indi wakt fadawi kteer 

P sar 

ana sirt fakeer 
int sirt m allim 
inti sirti shatra 
hoo ma sar adami ba'd 

hee sarat lateefi kteer 

nihna sirna \yaDeen 

intoo sirtoo arinya la achir daraji 

honne ba'd ma saroosh ahsan 
waiu sirt li_j-jabr 
ba'd ma sirtish at allam jabr 
ta al m.a1 shoo biseer idashammait 
il-3^om il-hawa? 
ma bisirsh arobh la barra 
sar is-so'blir? 

la ba'd ma saratsh is-sa'a hda'sh 

u nolDSS 
kaddaish sarlak fi^^l-kobds? 

shoo sarlak ya shaich? 

wala ishi 

ma'lobra sarlak ishi 

kol^lli ida ko'bnt bitho'bbb 

hoo biseer yit'allam toorki 

hee bitseer tihki 'arabi ba'd sane 

aimtan or aimta bitseeroo tihkoo 

shoo biseer ida koont basafir^il- 

biseer minnak ishi? 
ma'loom ana baseer mhaudiz 


You will have jealous enemies. 
I shall have much spare time. 

Be, become, c/. §§ 126. 2. 219. 

I have become poor. 
You (m.) have become teacher. 
You (f.) have become diligent. 
He has not yet become decent, 

(lit ; Adam or man like). 
She has become very friendly. 
We became ill. 
You became exceedingly rich, 

(lit: to the last step). 
They have not yet become better. 
How far have you gone in algebra? 
I have not yet learned algebra. 
Come with me! what does it 
matter if you take a walk to-day? 
I am not allowed to go out. 
Is it noon? 
No, it is not yet half past eleven. 

How long have you been in 

.Jerusalem ? 
What is ailing you o Sheikh? 

Something has happened to you. 
Tell me, if you please. 
He begins tu study Turkish. 
She will perhaps speak Arabic 
after one year- 
When will you begin to speak 
the truth? 
What does it mattter when I 

depart to-day? 
Will you ever be anything? 
Of course I will become a good 

— 96 — 

"The Personal Pronoun in the 
Nominative Case. c/". § 8 
She earns more than I. 
Are 3^ou the principal? 
I am comfortable in this position. 
They are partners in his business. 

He is my companion. 
We have no time for flight. 
You (m. sing.) and your mother 
will visit us. 
She and I picked flowers. 

id-damayer il-marfoo'a 

bithassil aktar minni 

int riyis il-madrase? 

ana mistreeh 'ala hal-kaifiye 

ho'bm shobraka or msahmeen fl 

hoo rafeeki 

ma Indnash wakt la^l-hareebe 
int u obmmak bitzobrbbna 

hee u ana katta'na zhobr 

ihna sowwarna u hot)m yistreelioo We photographed while they 

hdbnne u dawabhbbn kauoo They, as well as their riding 

'atshaneen kteer animals, were very thirsty, 

hoo II sahbo 'imloo safra He and his friend made a journey, 

ihnau hdbnne ma koonnash nifham We and they could not under- 

ba'd • stand each other, 

int II hee u oochot)tak lazim You, she and your (m.) bro+hers 

tjawboo 'ala has-soValat must answer these quesfions. 

hoo biktib ahsan iiiin yom la-yom He writes better from daj^ to day. 
yommin il-iyam riji' la lialo la wara One day he returned alone, the 
il-bakyeien rahoo oosara rest were taken prisoner, 

hiye wahdha sahhilha hadiye She alone received a present, 

ho'bm u mo'bsh nihna kassaroo^s- She, and not we, broke theplates. 


id-damayer il-mansoobe 

chabbarni 'an matlobbo 
ana babrdo kteer 
il-'adoo liliikhoon tool in-nhar 
mat kabl ma wajadobh 
o^dsilna 'ala safhit ij-jabal u 

shobfnah wkki' la taht 
chiyalt b'ajali l.iatta asal la 'indo 
sabaknaho'om bi ko'brb ij-jisir 

The Personal Pronoun in the 
Accusative Case. c/. § 9 

He made known to me his wish. 
I hate him much. 
The enemy pursued them all day. 
He died before we found him . 
We reached the precipice and 

saw him fall down. 
I rode fast to reach him. 
Weovertookthem nearthe bridge 


min kasarhtfbn 
! dowwa'thtf'on mbaril.i 'ala darb 

I ma tchalleeho'onsh yikta'oo han- 

I rajji" ij-jareede baM ma tikraha 

baM ma zara'na_z-zhoor 

il-chail ta'baneen challeehoom 

ma tsarrijhobnsh hatta nithiya 
iltakait ma'hoon li hal-matrah? 
la, marakt 'auhoom bi_l-koorb 

shobfthtfon ka'deen "ala hajar 

ishtarooh bi leertain. 
bfto bi ntfbss it-taman 


ma ba'rafsh aktib 'arabi 
inti ya fareedi bta'rfi tiktbi 

wlihki 'arabi, mtfbsh hakk? 
ba'raf yirkab w^ikowwis kteer 

chadeeji bta'rif totttbobch kteer 
mleeh, hee bta'^rif kamaii tishtril 
shoorl^il-bait 'ala ahsan tarz 
bass mna'rif nikra inkleezi 
ma bta'rfobsh tikroo wala tiktboo 
wala tihsboo 
bta'rif meen wajad or ichtara' 

ism il-michtri" ma'roof 'indi amma 
ma bakdarsh akool wain kau 


Who has broken them? 

I lost them yesterday in the street. 

Let them not cross this river. 

Bring (sing.) the newspaper back 

when you have read it. 

After we planted the flowers we 

watered them. 

The horses are tired, let them rest. 

Do not saddle them until we 

are ready to start. 
Did you meet them at this place? 
No, I passed them near the 

I found {lit: saw) her sitting on 

a stone. 
They bought it for 2 lira. 
I sold it for half the price. 

Can (=know how) § 114.2 

I cannot write Arabic. 
You, Fereede, can write and 

speak Arabic. Is it cot so? 
He can ride and shoot very well. 

Chadeeje can cook very well, she 

also knows how to do housework 


We can only read English. 

You (plur.) can neither read, write 

nor reckon. 

Do you (sing.) know who invented 

the art of printing? 

Thename ofthe inventor is known 

to me but I cannot tell where he 


A Manual of Palestinean Arabic. 

— 9B — 

is'al il-chadim ida kaa bya'rif 

3'ishwi jaje? 

ba'raf anso^ob^il-chaime u ba'raf 

adobbbha walakia ma bakdarsh 

a'mal hada la hali 

bta'raf inna safarna^^l-j^om tna'- 

sliar Dieel, badol tlat myal aktar 


bakdar atsowwar hada mleeh, 
laish inn^id-darb kanat sihle 
bainama mbarih ma kdirnash 
nsafir a"ja], laish inn_id-darb 
kanat wfri 


ana bikdar ahmil hal-kees it-theen 

"ala sahri 

nia btikdareesh tihmli hal-bdbkje 

lal-bosta? hee chafeefe 

ykiktoie btikdareesh tnassfi^l-oda 

ahsan? il-rabara ba'dha mlabbdi 


yaliya byikdarsh yirfa' has-san- 

dook hee tkeeli kteer 

il-chaddame ma btikdarsh timsah 

ko"oll_il-bait la halha lazim^ilha 


ma mnikdarsh nimrobk min hal- 

hakl laish inno mihjir kteer 

ma btikdaroosh tsafroo^l-ydmmin 


il-chail ma byikdaroosh yihmloo 

kol)ll il-'afsh fi kita' kteere 
il-kadi hakam 'al-mijirm 
walakin ma kidirsh ichalleeh 

btikdar tdbkftfbz 'an hal-chandak? 

Ask the servant whether he can 

roast a chicken? 

I can set up and strike a tent, 

but I cannot do it alone. 

Do you know that we have tra- 
velled to-day twelve miles, that 
is three miles more than yester- 
I can well imagine this, the road 
was smooth, while yesterday we 
could not go fast on account of 
the rough road. 

Can (=to be able)c/: §115. 

I can carry this bag of flour 

upon my back, \ 
Can you (f.) not carry this package ' 
to the post? It is light. 
Fatima, can you not clean the 
room better? The dust is still 
upon the floor. 
Yahya cannot lift this case, it : 
is too heavy. 
The maid cannot clean the whole 
house alone, she must have help. 

We cannot go through this field, 
as it is too stony. 
You cannot begin your journey 
to-day on account of the heavy rain. 
The horses cannot carry all the 

luggage, there are too many pieces. 
Thejudge condemned the criminal, 

but could not make him repent. 

Can you leap over this ditch? 


bachaf inni ma akdarsh 
ma kdirtish aftal.i il-bab, il-ral 
w^^il-miftah kauoo tnainhobm 
byitsallahoo has-sarami baM 'ala 
shee tareeka, immazza'een kteer 
mihma ista'jalt fl_,l-mashi ma 
btikdaish tisal la^l-wad kabl 
ma iseer 'itme 
ma mnikdarsh uitla' 'aj-jabal 
kabl tloo'' ish-shams laish inno 
moochtir kteer 
ida kdirt achallis shoorli bakkeer 
mnikdar nrtfbh inshoomm il-hawa 

rad, bidd. 

bareed iuuak tiji^l-yom bad is- 
sobhr la 1iidi 
shoo biddik or bitreedi ta mli fi 

biddi akobss feeha warak 
ida koonti bitreedi mnitba' hat- 
tareek illi feeha fi 
ibraheem bireed or biddo yanial 
rab'a hawala moolko 
rad yifhas dafatrak or hsabatak 

biddi astanna 'alaik 'ind^il-koorni 
hatta tiji 
biddnash shee min hada illi 

thassal bi^l-haram 
biddi adfa' lak objirtak; ta al 'ala 

shoo btoVmo'or, sar lak wakif hon 
aktar min saa 
biddeesh innak tistamil haik 

haki siflh bi hdobri 

I am afraid I cannot. 
I could not open the door, both 
lock and key were broken. 

Can these shoes be mended any 
more? they are badly torn. 
However fast you walk, you can- 
not reach the valley before 
We cannot ascend the mountain 
before sun-rise, it is too dangerous. 

If I can finish my work at an 
early hour, we can take a walk. 

Will, wish, cf. §§ 116 Remark 
126. 2, 206.3. 

I wish you (m.) to come to me 

this afternoon. 

What will you (f.) do with, this 

blunt knife? 

I will cut paper with it. 

If you (f.) wish, we may follow 

this shady path. 

Ibrahim will erect a wall around 

his property. 

He wished to examine your 

I will cut for you at the corner 
until you come. 
We will not have anything of 

what was unjustly acquired. 

I will pay you your wages: come 

to my office. 

What do you wish ? Youhave been 

standing here for over an hour. 

I do not wish you to use such 

vile language in my presence. 

100 — 

il-banua biddo yistlim bina baitna 

minreed nistamil bass ahsan teen 

II min shall 

minreed nistamil shameento 

kan biddo yiji walakin dbmmo raa 


damayer moblk ii yoomal 
bitdill 'al-moblk. 

sa'ti 'ind is-sa'ati? 

la useet achdbdha la hoonak, 

hee fi odti 
hadi chaimtak^ij-jdeede? 
la, hee la achooi 
markaz baiti ahsan min markaz 

ashjar it-teen illi fi boostanko''on 

matlaneen tamar 
farastak 'al kteer 
minhibb klabna w_ibsasna 
dbchtna asrar min o^bchtkobm 
il-karrosa taba' jarna mobsh 

mleelia mitl taba'na 
iKashshi kasar jat ish-shoraba 

waddi-sarji las-srobji 
bitshikk bi'inni bahfas kalami? 

kalamak mleeli mitl id-dahab 
ij-jamal ilo jras min fadda 

'ala_l-mailtain min rakbto 
rajji' madhalitna lazim nidhal 

baitna kabl ish-shita 
matlobbak tamm 
hal-hakl taba'hoon 
rayathobn il-'atli ma marakatsh 
or salakatsli 

The mason wishes to undertake 

the building of our house. 

We will use only the best mortar 

and for the dividing walls we 

will use cement. 

He wished to come, but his 

mother would not let him go. 

Possessive Pronouns and 
Phrases cf. §§ 9—15. 

Is my watch at the watchmakers? 
No, I forgot to take it, it is in 

my room. 
Is this your new tent? 
No, it belongs to my brother. 
The situation of my house is 
better than yours. 
The fig-trees in your garden are 

full of fruit. 
Your mare is very beautiful. 
We are fond of our dogs and cats. 
Our sister is younger than yours. 
The carriage of our neighbour 

is not so handsome as ours. 
The cook has broken your tureen. 

Take my saddle to the saddler. 
Do you doubt that I shall keep 
my word? 
Your word is as good as gold. 
The camel has silver bells on 

both sides of his neck. 
Return our roller, we must roll 
our roof before the rain. 
Your wish has been realized. 
This field belongs to them. 
Their evil intentions have been 
frustrated {lU: have not passed by). 

— 101 — 

a'liialktf'on il-raleeha btitkafa Your ^ood works will be 

ahsan mo^oktanayatna moosh Our best possessions are not 

dahab wala fadda o-old and silver. 

arsan ashjar il-kraish w^il-arz The branches of our fir and cedar 

illi ilna tkassaroo min^il-hawa trees are broken by the wind. 

il-fi'l ma'_id-damayer The Verb with the Pronominal 

Sufiix cf. § 17. 

hoo ma sim'oosh He has not heard it. 

sho^ofnah limmin fat 'al-oda He saw him as he entered the 


a'taitha iyah You gave it to her. 

arjaui manasir il-mdeene We showed me the views of the 


il-'ashshi charrabo min kitr il- The cook spoiled it by too much 

hamm heat, 

sa'alto wain darb^il-karrosa 'ala I asked him, "Where is the 

areeha road to Jericho?", 

ishtarah min 'ind il-'attar He bought it at the grocer's. 

ismJ'tak tikrah I have heard you read it. 

achadooh miuni They took it away from me. 

low ana matrahkol)n koont If I were in your place I should 

ba'ajroo let it. 

ma bakdarsh asta'jroo bikallif 1 cannot hire it, it costs too much. 


hal-'afreet charrabo This fellow has spoilt it. 

bee'o ii ma bifo^ozsh tinhamm Sell it and you will be without 

further care, 

bartalo, amma^l-mwassafeennaba- He bribed him, but the officials 
sho'b^l-mas'ale discovered it {lit: the matter), 

ma koonnash nikdar inbarhno We could not prove it. 

kd'oll wahad kan 'arif il-hakeeka Every one knew it, but none 

amma ma hadan sallamo betrayed him. 

sbalah so'brmaito u hattha 'ala He took oflf his shoes and put 

janb them by his side. 

zdbrto kabl yom I visited him the day before. 

— 102 — 

il-m^i 'ammal tirli, sheelha 
il-lahra mistwi nawilni^iyah 
naddif ish-shababeek u ba dain 

mallaina has-satl u joobnalak iyah 

asami il-ish^ra. 

hadak ir-rajoTol kal hal-mas'ali ma 

bit'obzish titlahak 

achoo hadak il-ma'moor kd'obtan 

awani^z-zeene hadol moorjan 
hadolak il-charazat il-beed looloo 
Mdi^d-darb 'ala hadeekil-karye? 
la, hadeek is-sikke bitwaddi la 

shoo kan il-chabar illi wislak 

is-sa'i jab hada^l-maktoob 

hadoleek rassalat 

byishtirlo minshanna haj-joom'a 

hada^l-matloob kteer 

hadeek il-akle ta'mitha chall 
hada ta'mto tibe 
hadak il-breek ma tnaddafsh 
hada makbool Indi or hada^illi 
h^da_,l-walad 'azeez 'alaiyi 
hada haki bala ta'me 

hadol il-owlad ijoo min hadeek 

a'teeni shwi min hash-shikl 
fl hadak il-yom irji'na 'al-bait 

The water is boiling, take it off. 
The meat is done, hand it to me. 
Clean the windows and shut them 
We have filled this pail and 

brought it to you. 

Demonstrative Pronouns 

cf. §§ 18—20. 

This matter, that man said, need 
not be discussed {lit: followedup), 
The brother of that official is a 
These ornaments are corals. 
Those white beads are pearls. 
Is this the road to that village? 
No, that road leads to it. 

What was that message you 

(sing, m.) received? ■ 

The messenger broughtthis letter. 

Those are washerwomen. 

They are working for us this 


This is asking too much (lit: this j 
demanded is much).'?; 

That dish tastes of vinegar. | 

This has a good taste, j 

That jar has not been cleaned. 

That is agreeable to me. 

This child is dear to me. J 

This is empty talk (lit: without * 

These boys have come from that 

Give me a little of this kind. 
On that day we returned home. 


kool latrtabbacha hatta tdbtbobch 

hadol it-to"offahat 

moosh 'ala hal-kaifij^e bareed iuu 

hadol il-6wad yitnaddafoo 

sheel bsatat ir-rijlain hadol min 

il-6da u uaftidho~t)ii 

hadol is-sdbwar moosh m'allakeen 


adwat il-istifham. 

meen sa'al 'auni^l-yom 'kabl is- 

shoo haKaita or has-syah? 
*an meeu inhakat hal-kidbe? 
min aish mamool tobak? 

lameen hakait hal-hadti? 

bi aish irlitt limmin hakait kooss- 
tak or tareech hayatak? 
bi aish bitbarrid^iu-nas feek? 

aimta^^rjit min fobrstak? 

wain kaddaitoo layaleekd'on limmin 
safartoo fi^l-barr? 
'ala iya^tareeka kisboo? 
meen jai _s6bna? 
is-sabi illi ba'atnah hatta yishtri 

keef sar feek min^ir-ro^okb? 
jareedit meen 'ammal tdbkroo? 
shoo ammal yinfa'ni ida shtaralt 
tool^in-nhar bjadd kawi? 

shoo^d-da'we ma'^il-'arbaje? 

Tell the cook (f.) to stew these 

That is not the way in which 

I wish these rooms cleaned. 

Take these bed-side rugs out of 

the room and shake them. 

These pictures are not hanjiing 


Interrogative Pronouns 
cf. §§ 22-27. 

Who called forme this forenoon? 

What noise is that? 

About whomhas this lie been told? 

Of what material is your (f.) 

dress made? 
To whom did you report this 

In what did you err when you 

told your story {or life-story)? 
About what are you making 

yourself disliked? 
When did you return from your 
Where did they pass their nights 
when travelling over-laud? 
By what means did they win? 
Who is coming there toward us? 
It is the boy whom we sent to 
buy provisions. 
How have you borne the ride? 
Whose newspaper are you reading? 
What does it profit me if I toil 
(lit: work with strong energy) all 

What is the matter Jwith the 


104 — 

shoo ilak malika or sho''orl ma' What have you to do (= lit: a 
shachs illi seeto haik Itil? conversation or work) with a 

person who has sucii a bad reputation? 

keef mdbmkin inno wobsil bhaik 
mobddi kaseere? 
keef bit'allil slookoV 
keef bitbiyin it^t'ichchir fee 

madchoolna hadi^s-sana? 
min meen t'azzart? 


il-ho"ojjaj illi safaroo 'ala makka 
aktarhoon min hal-blad 

ir-rajo'bl illi byisrot)k harame 
il-mara illi btishhad shahhade 
il-insan illi byishrab kteer hoo 

il-hoorriye illi a'taha^s-sooltan 

hee barake 
il-oommeillima bithafis 'al-kanoon 
im'akkad btitlasha 
ii-msafreen illi safaroo tool in- 

nhar ta'baneen 

ir-rajool illi_indarr min^ish-shob 

'awad tab 

is-soo'alat illi btis'alha mt md'osh 

moomkin ijawib 'alaiha insan 


illi byiji mit owwik byitkasas 

kata' la_sh-sharreel illi ma ajash 
'ash-shoorl oojrit yom 

il-hsab illi ba'ato^l-'attar kan 

il-eed illi^tattalat min il-wik' 

How is it possible that he has 
arrived in so short a time?^ 
How do ^ou explain his conduct? 
How do you account for the deficit 
in our income this year? 
From whom did you get a rebuke? 

The Relative Pronoun, 

cf. §§ 28. 29: 

The pilgrims who departed for 
Mekka are mostly from this 
The man who steals is a thief. 
The woman who begs is a beggar. 
The person who drinks too much 
is a drunkard. 
The liberty which the Sultan 

gave to the people is a blessing. 
The nation which does not obey 
the law will surely perish. 
The travellers who had been 

travelling all day were tired. 
The man who had been over- 
come by the heat has recovered. 
The questions which you ask 
cannot be answered by a sage. 

He who comes late will be pun- 
He deducted one day's wages 
from the labourer who stayed _ 
away from his work. 
The bill which the grocer sent 
was incorrect. 
The hand which was injured by 

— 105 — 

iurabtat imbareh 
il-bait illi 'ammalua nibneeh hadd 
btfbstan il-baladij'e 
saraft kobll^il-masare illia'taitak 
la aua bass ishtarait daftar^il- 
mlahasat illi shoofto iut 
laish ma kaddamtish la_d-daif 
illi kan hon finjan kahwe 
talli sandook^il-mai illi taht 

il-hawa kasar esb-shtf'obbak illi 
challaitooh maftoob 
daffet esh-sbdbbbak illi nseena 
iumakkinhabi^l-liait wik'at la taht 

nafs or buafs; dat or bd^t; 
lial; eed or bleed, 
iut bnafsak or bi eedak or bdatak 
roohna bnafsna or bdatna hatta 
nibliat 'ala hal-mas'ale^l-'ajeebe 
ida rooht bnafsi or bdati shoo 
mo1)rakin yin'mil ba'd aktar^min 
auii rot)bt 'ala^l-mhatta ashoof 
bdati or bnafsi airata bisafroo 
byikdar_il-insau iraiyii- halo or 
uafso or dato 
a'mlo int la halak or buafsak or 
bdatak u ba'dain bikoou ahsau 
i'raf nafsak or halak or datak 
katal nafso or halo or dato 

dat . 
dat ir-rajol)l illi ajram sarak 

a fall was bandaged yesterday. 
The house which we are build- 
ing is near the public garden. 
Did you spend all the money, 

which I gave you? 
No, I only bought the note-book 
which you saw. 
Why did you not offer a cup of 
coftee to the guest who was here? 
Fill the reservoir which is in 

the garret. 

The wind brokethe window which 

you left open. 

The shutter which we forgot to 

fasten to the wall fell down. 

Self: cf. § 30 
You yourself shut the gate. 

We went ourselves to inquire 

into this mysterious matter. 

If I go myself, what more can 

be done than has already been 

I went to the railway station 
to see for myself when the trains 


Can a man make himself other 

than he is? 

Do it yourself and then it will 

be done in the best way. 

Know thyself. 
He killed_^ himself. 

The same cf. § 31 
The same man ^who committed 
the crime, ^stole. 

A Manual of Palestinean Arabic. 

— 106 — 

harabna fi dat^il mowka'a 
kan fi dat^is-sana illi harab 

feeha mliaramad 'ala^l-madeena 
kooll^in-nas bitilboo dat il- 

minsalli la dat il-ilah 
hakait li dat il-kobssa kteer marrat 

ainma anaraabakdarsh asaddkak 
akaloo miii dat il-akl illi akalna 


'ammalha tikra dat il-kobssa illi 

kreetha ana 

ba'do dat il-mb'osheer il-hakeem 

mitl i»a kan bi^z-zaman il-madi 
ili dat it-tika feek illi la m allmak 

a'teeni dat ij-jtfttrnal illi 'ammalo 
yikrah hoo 

We fought in the same battle. 
It was in the same year in which 
Muhammed fled to Medina. 
All men make the same demands. 

We worship the same God. 
You have told me the same story 
often, but I cannot believe you. 
They ate of the same food as we. 

She is now reading the same story 
which I read. 
He is still the same sagacious 

counsellor as of old. 

I have the same confidence in you 

as your master has. 

.Give me the same journal which 

he is reading. 

baM u kism. 

walow ihtakartoo baVlko'on ma 
hada intoo ichwe or ichwan 
ma fhimuash tba' ba'dna^l-ba'd 

wa'adoo ba'dhou in ^imshoo 

ij-jyoosh^ijtama'oo ma' ba'd fi^l- 
marj or sahl 
la tchownoosh il-wahad it-tane 
will a ma bitkcTonoosh soVada 
hdbbboo ba'dkoon il-ba'd w^itjan- 
il-milal illi byittalla'oo 'ala 
ba'dhon bidoou tika bisabbiboo 
haUkhoon il-chass 

Each other, some, after, 
cf. §§ 32. 33., R. and Addenda. 

You may despise each other, 

nevertheless you are brothers. 
We have not understood each 

other ('s character). 

They promised each other to 

carry out the spirit of the law. 

The armies met each other on 

the plain. 

Do not distrust each other, or" 

you will never be happy. 

Love each other and banish 

The nations which look with 

suspicion upon each other cause 

their own destruction. 

107 — 

la tidtihdoosh ba'dkobu 

kism niiu^ir-rjal mowloodeen 

hatta^ikoonoo koowwad 
akammmin wahad min^il-'adoo 

il-marloob chilsoo 
ba'd_il-ralbeen kanoo shoorafa 

kism min^illi wik'oo fi^n-nahr 

ba'atna kism min^el-chaddameeii 
hatta^ijeeboo mai min_il-'aiu 
a'teeni kism min_il-masameer 

illi rooshtf'on imbaltaha 

tfbchtak jabat li kism min wara- 


kism min^il-chail nattoo 'aa^is- 

ba'd ir-rtfbkkab bikvoo wara 


ko^oll ishi byinthi mleeh bikoon 

ktfbllhadol^il-astolDr mowroobeen 
kooll insan ma'o hakk fi i-ayo 

or sinno 
kobll id^dinya bitbiyin la^s- 

sa'eed mleeha or jameele 
ib'at kooll^il-bo'okaj or so'orar 

'ala odti 
ktfbll 'asfoor or tair u kd'oll hiwau 

byifrah bi "eeshto 
ihki kobll kilme wadha w^imafs- 

kooll shdbrlak bass nol)Ss 'a nooss 

ko^oU^it-talameed lazim yikafoo 

Do not pursue each other with 

Some men are born leaders. 

A few of the defeated enemy 

Some of the victors were mag- 
Some of those who fell into the 
river were drowned. 
We sent some of the servants to 
fetch water from the spring. 
Give me a few nails with flat 

Your sister brought me a few 

sheets of your writing paper. 

Some of the horses leaped over 

the fence. 

A few of the passengers remained 


All, every cf § 34. 
All is well that ends well. 

All the lines are slanting. 
Every man has a right to his 

All the world seems fair to the 

Send all the parcels to my room. 

Every bird and every beast 

rejoices in his life. 
Pronounce every word clearly 

and distinctly {lit : explained) . 
All your work is only half done 
{lit: half upon half). 
All pupils must rise when the 

^ 108 — 

owwal ma^ifoot^il-m'allim 'al- teacher eaters the school-room, 

nassif odit is-so'bkQa kooll yom Cleau the drawing--room every 

itnain Monday. 

fatayil il-kanadeel lazim yinkassoo The lamp- wicks must be trimmed 

w^il-kanadeel lazim yit'abboo kaz and the lamps filled with oil 

kdoll yom every day. 

rair. Other, another cf. § 35 

btikdarsh ta'teene jawab rair haj- Can you not give me another 

jawab? answer than this, 

ma sho'oftish abadan hsan yirko^od I never saw another horse run 

mitl hada like this, 

ej-jdbm'a^l-madye kan fee rair There was another disturbance, 

'ajka or haiza'a last week. 

ib'at jeeb rair shoke u ma'laka Send for another fork and spoon, 

hi rair flnj4n ma fish rairhon Here is another cup, there are 

no others, 

ihsiltoo 'ala rair achbar min im- Have they received other news 

bareh since yesterday? 

ilbsi rair fo'bstan hada mwassach Put on another dress, this one 

is soiled. 

btikdar trooh rair yom, il-yom You may go another day; to-day 

lazim tibka fl^l-bait you must stay at home. 

ib'at li rair makass hada mtallam Hand me another pair of scissors, 

these are blunt. 


shee or shi, hiyallah. Any cf. § 36. 

fi hiyallah yom limmin tshoof Any day that you feel strong 

halak kawi kfai bidna na'mal enough, we will take a long walk, 
shatha taweele 

a'ti^sh-shahhad hiyallah ishi bit- Give to the beggar anything 

reedeeh 3^ou (f.) wish. 

inna shi no' mbeed fi_,l-mach- Have we any wine in the cellar? 


mobsh \kz\m tihki wala la insan You must not tell any person 

aish^ismi t what you heard.j 

— 109 — 

ilha shee atar raja bi'inn achdoha Has she aay hope {lit: any trace 

byirja"? of) that her brother will return? 

il-harame kadir ya'mal hiyallah The robber is capable of comit- 

darar ting any wrong, 

koont hasil 'ala shi min_ir-raha? Did you have (///: in possession) 

any comfort? 

el-chabbaz ma indobsh wala slii The baker had not any flour 

min^et-theen hatta yichbiz ka'k to bake a cake. 

a'dad asliye. C 

la wain raiheen hadol it-tlat oolad? 
raiheen 'ala karye btib'id min hou 
tman myal 
iya 'ad ad hada? 
hada iidbmro 'ashara 
jariilli'an^il-yameen noomro tis'a 

shoo noomrit jartak illi 'an_ish- 

no~bmrha tnain 

hoonak ala^^s-soofra fi sitta'shar 

tna shar baida bitsawi dazzeeuet 


ish-shahr^il-kamari bass tamauye 

II 'ishreen yom 

is-sana ish-shamsiye ilha tlat miye 

u chamse u sitteen yom 

el-chaddam saff is-so^ofra la sab' 


aoa ma kdbntish fl^l-kot)ds min 

mot)ddit Sana u sitt_ishhoor 

el-masafebainil-koods ii yafabi_s- 

sikke takreeban tis'een kilomitr 

btikdar tisal la maksdodak bsa'a 

ardiual Numerals, cf. §§87—44 

Where are these 3 boys going? 
They are going to a village which 
is 8 miles from here. 
Which numeral is that? 
That is number lO. 
My neighbour to the right has 

No. 9. 
What is the number of your 

neighbour (f.) to the left? 
Her number is 2. 
There, on the table, are 16 cigar- 
The zodiac has 12 signs. 
Twelve eggs are equal to one 

dozen eggs. 
A lunar month has only 28 days. 

The solar year has 365 days. 

The servant has laid the table 

for 7 persons. 
I have not been in Jerusalem 

for 1 year and 6 months. 
The distance from Jerusalem to 
Jaffa by railway is about 90 kilo- 
You can reach your destination 
in an hour. 

— no — 

iya no' dd'ochch^n btishrabV 

badachchiu nolDinro brinji or brinji 

achir taman la hal-kobrsi 'ashar 

id-dr4' min hal-kmash bi arba 

frankat u. arb'een santeem 
int dafa t ehda shar kirsh aktar 

min^illi 'alaina 
el-hasil min hal-majmoo' bi'adil 
mitain u chamsta'sh 
hkki dainak byiblar alf w^itlat 
miye u sab'a u Ishreen leera 
or neera inkleeziye 
raart^il-fallah bitdabbirmin shan- 
na ko'oll jobm'a chams wak zibde 
in-nashtariye inhakamoo 

'ishreen sana 
esh-shahr ilo bi__,l-'^de tlateen 
willa wahad wi^tlateen yom 
walakin wala marra tnain wi^t- 
kteen; u bad marr^t tamanye 
u'ishreen willa tis'a u'ishreen yoni 
fl miyet rati hatab tamam 


ana ftakart il-kobbr arba ta'shar 

mitr badal wahad u 'ishreen 

es-s^'a ilha sitteen dakeeka u kd'oll 

dakeeka ila sitteen tanye 

kol)ll arb'a u 'ishreen sk'a. mak- 

soomeen la lail w^inhar 

et-tajir ba'at saba'tashar himl 

bo^ordkan la 'ameelo 

Mndik chams irtyet sdbfar 

imbareh wisil tna shar msafir 

What quality of tobacco do you 

I smoke first quality Turkish 

The last price of this chair is 
10 francs. 
One ell of this cloth costs 4 

francs and 40 centimes. 
You paid eleven piasters more 
than we owed. 
The sum of this addition equals 


The remainder of your debt is 

1327 English pounds. 

The peasant-woman supplies us 

every week with 5 okiye of butter. 

The highwaymen were condemned 

to 20 years imprisonment. 

A month has, as a rule, 30 or 

3L days, never 32, sometimes 

28 or 29. 

There are exactly 100 rotl of 

kindling wood in the yard. 
I thought the size was only 

14 metres instead of 21. 
An hour has 60 minutes and 

every minute has 60 seconds. 
Every 24 hours are divided in- 
to night and day. 
The merchant sent 17 loads of 
oranges to his agent, i 
You (f.) have 5 beautiful table- ! 

There arrived yesterday twelve ! 
travellers, i 

- Ill — 

a'dad tarteebiye, taw^reech 

il-6wwal illi byijtaz hada_,l-liadd 
tani yom tfbsilna la ras ij-jabal 

shoo hoo^l-harf is-sabi' fee hroof 

il-hija or alef ba 

hoo wisil fee tamanta sh tishreea 

il-owwal la filsteen 

itjowwazoo fi sab'a ii 'ishreen 

neesan sanat alf ii tis' miye ii 

shottft fee iya yom rain iy^m ij- 
jo"bm'a bikoon il-chamis w_il- 
'ishreen rain shahr kanoon il- 
owwal li^s-sana ij-jai 
achooi ir-rabi' fl_s-saff ii ba'daiu 


min shan hada int is-sadis 

sahar Ii bi^l-owwal bi'inno raoosh 

raistkeem ii acheeran lahast bi 

iano kan raltan 

intoo t'addaitoo^l-wasij'e owwal 

marra inshallah bitkoon karaan 

acher marra 

bi_l-6wwal ma kano"osh yikdaroo 

ishobofoo shee rain ish-shita^l- 

fi^l-iyam^il-kadeeme k^noo 

Imarrat kteere yiktloo ko'bll 'ashir 
'hadi tani marra illi o"o'lin feeha_l- 
hookm in-niyabe la_sh-shab_il- 

ilo keeratain or sihraain fi hal- 


Ordinal Numbers, Dates and 
Fractions, cf. §§ 45—53 

The first who passes this line 

will be sent back. 

On the second day we reached 

the top of the mountain. 

What is the seventh letter of the 


He arrived on the IS'^ of October 

in Palestine. 

They were married on the 27*^ 

of April 1905. 

Have you looked up on what day 
of the week the twenty-fifth of 
December falls in the comingyear? 

My brother is the fourth in the 
class and than come I. 
You are therefore the sixth. 
It appeared to me at first that 
he was not truthful; at last I 
observed that he was only mis- 
You (plur.) have transgressed for 
the first tirae, may it be the 
last time too. 
At the beginning they could not 
see anything because of the 
heavy rain. 
In ancient times often every 
tenth prisoner was killed. 

This is the second time a Con- 
stitution has been granted to 
the people of Turkey. 
He owns two karats or shares 
of this property. 

112 — 

bisihhillak rdbb' il-wirte 

chtf'oms^il-majeede arba^ikroosh 
u tlat ichmas 
jiz' min tna'sh min is-sana shahr 

■"ala akall ma^ikoou to'oltain il- 
liadreen ma fihmoosh lafsit 

jiz' mia tuain n chamseen min 
saua joom'a 
soods had61_it-teenat m'affin, miu 
il-baki^n-ntf'oss mdbsh mistAve 
w^in-nooss^it-tane mtVas 
tis' ij-jaish koollo matoo li^l- 

el-ralib fakad toomu asakro 

ktfbll mtfoktaaai tlat irba'^il- 


wakt u fayed 

sikket il- liadeed tiYsit miu^il- 
mahatta mitowka 'ashar dakayek 
uihua t'achcharDa sarat is-sa'a 

sab'a u robb' 
il owlad biroohoo^s-sa a tamanye 
ilia rtfbb' 'ala tchoothoon u 

bikoomoo sitte u uobss 
koblt iuaa sarat is-sa'a aktar miu 

iwa Sarat is-sa'a "chamse u sitt 

sa'ti wakfe kaddaish es-sa'a? 

sa'tak masbobta? 

You will receive one quarter of 

the inheritance. 

A fifth of a mejeedi is 4^5 piastres. 

The twelfth part of a year is a 

At least two thirds of those present 
misunderstood the word "liberty". 

A fifty-second part of a year is 

a week. 

One sixth 01 these figs is decayed; 

of the rest one half is^ unripe 

and the other half bruised. 

One ninth of all the army fell 

in battle. 

The victor lost one eighth of 

his soldiers. 

My whole possession is three 

quarters of a mejeedi. 

Time and Precentage 
cf. §§ 54. 55. 

The train left the station ten 

minutes late. 
We are late, it is already a 

quarter past 7. 

The children go to bed at a 

quarter to eight, and rise at 

half-past six. 

Did you say, it is already after 

five o'clock? 

Yes, it is six minutes past five- 

My watch stopped, what time 

is it? 
It is noon now. 
Is your watch right? 

— 113 — 

sk'ti daiman btitachchar 
s&'tik 'adatan bitsabbikorbitkaddim 
esli-sliams ba'd ma rabatsh 
u mia shan hada ba d ma saratsh 
is-sa'a sitte 
bitreed f eerni or tikridui masare? 
iwa kaddaish biddak? 
hada mit'allik min^il-fayid illi 

ida kdlDQt bta'teeni rahn mleeh 
ba teek il mablar bi chamse fl^l- 
miye kol3ll sana 
btikdarsh ta'milhtf'on tlate u no'oss 
fl^l-miye ? 
hada mo'osh mtfbmkin aktar il- 
mdaineen byitlboo tis'a fl^l-miye 
il-ba'd byitlboo marrtain ow tlat 
marrat aktar 
laish inti boo chood il-masare bi 
arba'a u uot)ss fl^^l-miye? 
chiyatti^l-chyata 'a takain? 
chiyatta 'ala tlat took 
in-naml fatoo bi saff taweel wahde 
baM et-tanye 'ala wikr en-naml 
rij'oo^l-harbeeu wahad ba'd^it- 
taui or wahad wahad halkaneen 
u ya'saneen 
kaddmoo wahad ba'd wahad u 

cho'bdoo haday^koom 

ana sho^oft.bass marra wahde razale 

kanoo yiushafoo jama'at tlati tlati 

II arba'a arba'a 

m'allmo a'tah marrtain aktar miu 

ma byisthikk 

My watch always loses. 
Your (f.) watch is generally fast. 
The Sim has not yet set and 
therefore it is not yet six o'clock. 

Will you lend me money? 
Yes, how much do you wish? 
That depends upon what percen- 
tage you ask. 
If you can give me a good 
security, I shall give the sum 
at 570 per annum. 
Can you not make it 37-2 7°^ 

That is impossible, most money- 
lenders demand 97o, some ask 
double or treble as much. 

Because it is you, take the money 

at 472 7o. 

Have you sewn the seam doubled? 

I have sewn it triple. 

The ants entered the ant-hill one 

by one in a long procession. 

The fugitives returned one by 

one, exhausted and disheartened. 

Step near, one after the other 
and receive your presents. 
I have seen a gazelle only once. 
They appeared in troops of threes 
and fours. 
His master gave him double 

what he earned. 

Prepositions c/". §§ 62 sqq. 
jobmal ma' harf ij-jarr 'ala. Phrases compounded with -ala 

'aib 'alaik It is a shame for you. 

A Manual of Palestinean Arabic. 

114 — 


'ala hal-kaifiye 

id-dor 'alaina 

'ala mahlak ya 'arbaji 

mashait 'ala mahli 

ana mtfbsh mirtah 'ala yaddha 

"ala^s-sakt or 'as-sakt 

'ala or liasab sinni 

'ala hsabak 

chafeef or sihiP or hiyin^ 'alaik 

tkeeP or sa'ib'^ 'alaiho'om 

'ala^l-balash or 'al-fadi 

'ala rasi or taht amrak 

"ala kaifak 

'alaihobm yamloo hsabain 

'alaina mteele la bobkra? 

^alaina nidfa' ishi? 

'alaiktfbm chamseen majeede dain 

la tikdib 'alaina! 

'ala kooU hal mleeh minnak haik 

'k\3i meen shakait? 

sabb immo 'ala aboo 

marra 'ala marra 
lakaito 'ala^d-darb 
kobll insan 'alaih w^jbat 

It does not matter. 

In this manner. 

It is our turn. 

Slowly driver! 

I have walked slowly. 

I am anxious concerning her. 

Silent! (lit: in silence). 

According to my opinion. 

At your expense. 

It is easy for you. 

It is difficult for them. 

In vain [lit: for nothing or upon 

the emptiness). 
At your order (lit: upon my head 
or under your command). 
At your pleasure. 
They have to make two examples. 
Have we a lesson to do for to- 
Have we anything to pay? 
You owe fifty mejeedi. 
Do not lie to us! 
In any case, it is good of you. 
Whom did you denounce? 
He cursed his mother upon his 
father {i. e. mother as well as 
Time after time. 
I met him in the road. 
Every one has duties. 

"Toberight", "to be wrong", 

"to owe", "ought" (i.e. duty). 

cf. § 70. 

ma kansh mleeh minnak innak It was wrong of you to go out 

titla' la halak la barra ba d ma alone after it had become dark. 

sar 'itme 

mental aud physical ^ mental. -* a fretiuent cui'se 

— 115 — 

hakyak kan ralat kan mabne 'ala 
tso*OAvir marloot or 'ala snoon 

k4n ma o^l-hakk iniio yitrikhoon 

ma' 'adam ikboolhd{)m hada 

'alainaba'd la_,l-biya charaseeu 

frank mdbchmal 

idfa' la^r-rajobl ida kan ilo 'alaik 

meen k4n lazim ijeeb il-makateeb 
wajbatkobn tkoonoo ktf'oll yom 

is-sa'a sab'a chalseen 

mady ooneen la ahilna bi^sh-shdokr 

limmin ma biktfbnsh maak hakk 

tjarra' hatta ti'tirif feeh 

il-insan 'alaih daiman wajbat esh- 

sliobkr nahoo illi 'allamooh 

ma hadan byikdar ikool ma 'alaiyi 

wala ishi min il-wajbat la hadan 

il-insan illi ma o hakk lazim ikoon 

shareef nahoo illi ma kansh ma'o 

'alaiyi akaddim lak Idri 'ala_l- 
ralat illi i'milto 

Your assertion {lit: speech) was 

wrong, it was based upon a false 


He was right to leave them in 

spite of their protestations. 

We still owe the merchant fifty 

francs for velvet. 

Pay the man if you owe him 

Who ought to have fetched the 
letters from the post-office? 
You ought to be ready every 

morning at seven o'clock. 

We owe gratitude to our parents. 

When you are in the wrong, 

have the courage to acknowledge it. 

Man will always owe a debt of 

gratitude to those who taught him. 

No one can say, I do not owe 

anything to any one. 

The man who is in the right . 

should be generous to the one 

who was in the wrong. 

I owe you an apology for the 

mistake which I made. 

'■ Compound 

Adverbs, N 

it-tyoor illi taireen fok nsoora 

illi 'ammalak tamalo didd il- 


mashaina "ala darb^il-karrosa^l- 

fok^niye badal it-tahtaniye 

fee mobddit ish-shita mno^osko^on 

fi l-obwad^ij-jo^bwaniyat laish 

il-barraniyat bardat kteer 

egatious etc. 

The birds which are flying over- 
head are eagles- 
What you are doing is contrary 
to the law. 
We took {lit: we walked) the 
upper road instead of the lower. 
During the winter we live in 
the inner rooms because the 
outer rooms are too cold. 

^ 116 

kablma nisal lal-maliall illi btinfsil 
feeh darb il-karrosa nbaratna 
min ish-shita 
la titiiknash issa ba'd bakkeer 
limmin marakna 'an id-dral fazz 

ma shiftisb acliooi min zamau 

kan wakif kbal is-soor (ir-rab'a) 

imshi'alahad-darb dobrre umrfftsh 

mdbmkin tirlat 'an il-mahall 

il-badawi ija la hon hatta ifar- 

jeena shoo misik 

fee hadak il-wadi rad fee 'aia 


ta'al la hon 'ala^l-harik ii ma 


owwal ma tobchlo^os shoorlak 

rooh la jihhit el-mdeene 

limmin kauat tistansir ni'sat 

a'teeni kadd ma a'taito 

matrah ma bitkoon, koon daiman 

'ala i.iadar 

ya 'arbaji challi^l-chail timshi 'ala 

mahlha id-darb charbane kteer 

kablhabiyomtsharrafna bi zyarto 

el-m'allim kllafni cho'bsoosi hatta 

adeer ball 'ala slooko 

is-sabi tkasas hadi 1-marra birair 


taman id-dra' min hada^l-bo'brko'o'' 

tm^n rroosh taraam 

kaddaish talab bi hadol il-'inbat? 

Before we reached the place 
where the road divides, we 

were overtaken by rain. 
Do not yet leave us, it is still early. 
As we passed the bushes a wolf 
suddenly sprang- out of them. 
I have not seen my brother for 
a long time. 
He stood opposite the wall (dry 

Follow this path straight and 

you cannot miss the place. 

The Bedu came hither to show 

us what he had caught. 

In yonder valley is a fine spring. 

Come here at once and do not 

As soon as you have finished 
your work, go towards the town. 
While she was waiting she fell 

Give me as much as you have 
given him. 
Wherever you are be on your 

Driver, walk the horses; the 

road is too rough. 

Ou the previous day we had the 

pleasure of his visit. 

The teacher told me especially 

to watch over his conduct. 

The boy was punished unjustly 

this time. 

The price of a dra of this veiling 

is exactly 8Y2 piasters. 

How^ much did he demand for 

these grapes? 

— 117 — 

il-ookiye bi nd'oss rirsh walakin an? 
bashoof hada kteer kteer 
il-'adoo jarrab 'al-balash inuo 

3'ihtall_il-kal a 
bass min shaja'et il-k4yed ma 


isma' baka "ala iiiashooret nks 

laish ba'dhoon hon ba'd? ana 

amartobn iroohoo 

kaddamli kafai mashobrat mleeha 

amma ana yamm bala wasayet 

hatta asta'milhobn 

muit'ammal innak "an kareeb 

blikdar tichrij afkarak la hijiz 

ma kansh mo'bmkinni a'mal shi 

hatta ihdar^il-ihtif&l 
kdbnna bi l-6wwal wahdna 
walakin ba'd moodde kaseere 

indammoo_,l-bakyeen ma'na 
rahoo sawa 'ala_l-bait 
il-hsan wahdo marak 'anna mitl 


ma tinkihirsh bi hal-mookdar ma 

n'amalsh bi_l-arade 

ba'd ma lammatsh kisar^il-finjan 

Half a piaster an okiye, but I 

consider this too much. 
The enemy tried vainly to get 

possession of the fortress. 
It was only by the courage of 
the leader that the expedition 
did not fail. 
Do listen to the advice of 

experienced people. 
Why are they still here? I 

ordered them to leave. 

He gave me enough good advice 

but I am entirely without means 

to avail myself of it. 

It is to be hoped that soon you 

will be able to carry out your 

I was unavoidably delayed in 

attending the ceremony. 

We were at first alone, but soon 

we were joined by the rest. 

They walked together to the house. 
The horse alone ran past us 

like lightning. 

Do not be so cross, it was not 

done intentionally. 

Has she not yet gathered together 

the fragments of the cup? 

amtal 'ala "rair" 
rami il-bahr rair kabil il-'add 

Illustrations with rair 

The sands of the sea are 

rair mbbmkin inni arobh_,il-yom It is impossible that I go to-day. 
fee kaman rair ko'btb hon Are there still other books here? 

meen rairna sowwat la hal-mas'ale? Who besides ourselves has voted 

for this matter? 

— 118 — 

ma biddosh ibattil kabl ma He will not stop imtil he has 

yoochlol)s finished, 

ma hadansh rairak biseer ifoot la None beside you may enter. 


Interjections and Exclamations 

c/".§§ 87-89. 

ya nas ma smi'toosh srach il- 

ma ahsan hadi is-soora, il-hiwan 
bibiyin ka'inno tiyib 
ma ashlab mashyitha bibiyin shi 

inna btid'as 'al-ard 

y^ biye keef is-sama 'an kareeb 

yiji raMiye 

ma ajra" hal-kalb bi mask^il- 

ya raitua nikdar inshoofo kaman 


ya raitna nlakeeh kabl ma iseer 

wachri kteer 

ma akbaro ! ana ftakart inna rai- 

jtieen inshoof rajo'ol 'obmro cham- 

seen sana 

yk wailna! shoo i'milna hatta 

biseebna haik? 

ya wail^il-oblad dowwa'oo^d- 

darb, wik'oo fl^l-m^i u pirkoo 

shoo or keef, hakk riji' 'ala baito 
baM hal-raibe^t-taweele? 

aha! 'idt "rift acheeran inn it-ta'a 
ahsan min ko'bbr ir-ras? 

men! have you not heard the 

cry of distress? 

How beautiful is the picture, the 

animal appears to be alive! 

How graceful is her walk, she 

scarcely seems to touch the earth! 

How threatening {lit: my father 

-how!) is the sky! there will 

soon be a storm. 

How courageous of this dog, to 

attack the thieves! 

that we were able to see him 

once more! 

that we might find him 

before it is too late. 

How old! I thought we should 

see a man of fifty years. 

Woe is us! what have we done 

to deserve this? 

Alas, the children, they lost the 

way, fell into the water and were 


What! is it true that he has 

returned home after so long an 


Well! have you at last come to 

the conclusion that obedience 

is better than disobedience? 

— 119 

Comparative and Superlative 
Degrees, cf. §§ 90—98 

kd'oll ma sar il-wahad ya'rif aktar 

ko'bll ma kan a'dab 

koolli iyah atwal u armak nahr 

fee filsteen? 

achaff mteele ma bitkdbnsh dai- 

man il-marroobe aktar ma ikoon 

ma ajmal hal^mansar hoo ajmal 

mansar sho'ofto 

kan 'inna {or 'indna) imbareh 

ashwab yom fl^s-sana 
htfbtt il-lahme 'ala raif a la hat- 
il-kamh hada^Kam archas min 
IKam el-made amma^ sh-sh'eer aria 
il-chail byimshoo "ajale kteer 

shiddoolhoom iljamathd'om shwi 

ko^oll ma wsilna abkar 'al-madafe 

ktfbll ma kan 'indna wakt aktar 

hatta nirtah 

ktfbll ma 'ajjalt bi tark 'obsharak 

il-hobmmal kobll ma kan ahsan 


saheeh^il-likobme^j-jdeede ahsan 

min^il-'ateeka or kadeeme 

ma 'oomri friht bi yom mitl hal- 

it-tabbach biwaffir kteer bi achd 

byihkoo kteer u ma bikirrilho'bn 
Yki abadan 
'al-kaleele lazim titrik in-namm 

sahl sarona achsab aktar kteer 
min ij-jbal illi hoi il-koods 

The more a person knows the 

more modest he will be. 

Tell me what is the longest and 

deepest river in Palestine. 

The easiest task is not always 

the most desirable. 

How beautiful is this view! 

it is the finest I have ever seen. 

We had yesterday the hottest 

day of the year. 
Put the meat on a higher shelf, 
so that the cats may not take it. 
Wheat is cheaper this year than 
last, but barley is dearer. 
The horses are running too fast, 
pull (plur.) in their reins a little. 
The sooner we reach the guest- 
house the more time we shall 
have to rest. 
The sooner you leave your bad 
companions the better it will 
be for you. 
It is true, the new government 
is better than the old. 
I have never enjoyed any day 

more than to-day. 
The cook is very economical in 
the use of butter. 
They talk too much and never 

reach a decision. 
At the least you might refrain 

from slander. 
The Plain of Sharon is much 
more fertile than the mountains 
round Jerusalem. 

— 120 

hada^l-bait ritib kteer lazim 
indowwir 'ala waliad nashif aktar 
idoorak hals bi hals, u ma btich- 
feesh makasdak il-hakeekiye 

has-s§.ko immaza' kteer ma 

t'tf'odsh tsallho 
'al-kteer rkibna tamaa sa'at ii ba'd 
fee kiddamna 'al-kaleele tlat sa'at 

ma byikdarsh il-wahad ikoon 

hidir ikfai fee iutichab cbadim 

kotdl ma ktfbut a'man ktfbll ma 

kd'ont mirtali aktar 

hadol^in-nas mo'omkin ikoonoo 

arna minnak amma ana basbikk 

fee ida molDmkia ikoonoo as'ad 


shoorlak^il-acheer mo'osh mleeh 


koon arjal walakin ma tif addash 

ihdoodak abadan 

ittakal kteer 'ala lataflt jaro 

afkar waliad boo illi fakad tikat 


kobll ma stajal^il-wahad bi^sb- 
shdbrl ko'oll ma marr il-wakt 

hada aktar mimma ilak hakk 

bada chabar ahsau mimma ko'ont 


akwa insan ma biko^onsh daiman 

asA,bh insau 

This bouse is too damp, we must 
seek a dryer one. 
Your excuses are obvious lies 
{lit: lies witb lies) and do not 
bide your real intentions. 
Tbis coat is too mucb torn, do 
not mend it. 
We bave ridden at tbe most, 
eight hours, and bave still at 
least three hours before us. 
One cannot be too careful in 

choosing a servant. 

The more faithful you are the 

more contented you will be. 

These people may be richer than 

you, but I doubt whether they 

can be happier than you. 

Your last work is less good than 
the first. 
Be more manly, but never over- 
step your bounds. 
He presumed too much upon the 
good-nature of bis neighbour. 
The most destitute is he, who 
has lost the confidence of his 


The faster one works tbe quicker 

the hours pass. 

This is more than you dared to 

It is better news than I 


The strongest man is not always 

the healthiest. 

— 121 — 

sifat bitchdbss il-mawad Adjectives of Materials 

w^il-i'yoob w^il-alwan Physical Defects and Colours 

cf. § 183. 

hada fo'ostan min sobf 
hee labse wazra min liareer 
'inna or Mndna sharashif kittan 
il-oolad labseen awa'e kittan 
ir-rajo"ol dachchan fee ralyoon min 

farjani shakfet Mmle min dahab 
il-fallaheen byakloo bi mala'ek 

il-bait illi 'am nibneeii ilo heetan 
min hajar 
Mnna wjak min hadeed fee 

jabat li Mlbe min kartoon ma' inni 
talabt wahde min chashab 
finjan^in-nasik kan min trab 

sarj hsani ilo hzam min jild w^illi 

i!ak min soof 

ma byilzamnash awani min nhas 

ii-malik sakin fi kasr min racham 

is-sama ila fi^s-saif Ion azrak 

ish-shalihad a'war bi *aino^l- 

hoo kan atrash min limmin wilid 
arjeeni^z-zhoor^il-beed illi 

bi eedak 
kishrat hadol^il-baidat mnak- 

kasheen bi nookat so'bmr 
iz-zibde safra mitl^id-dahab 
jild il-'abeed aswad 
lameeu hadi_l-faras iz-zarka 

This is a woollen dress. 
She is wearing a silk apron. 
We have linen bed-sheets. 
The boys are wearing cotton suits. 
The man smoked a silver pipe. 

He showed me a gold coin. 
The peasants eat with wooden 

The house which we are building 
has stone walls. 
We have an iron stove in our 

She brought me a paper box 
though I asked for a wooden one. 
The cup of the hermit was of 

The saddle of my horse has a 
leathern girth, yours a woollen one. 
We do not need brass dishes. 
The king dwells in a marble 


The sky is in summer of a deep 

blue colour- 

The beggar is blind in his righ^ 

He was deaf from his birth. 
Show me the white flowers which 
are in your hand. 
The shells of these eggs are 

sprinkled with brown spots- 
Butter is yellow like gold. 
Negroes have a black skin. 
Whose grey mare is this? 

A ManuEil of Palestinean Arabic. 


— 122 — 


harraj 'alaina hatta ma ua'malsh 
shee abadan 
farrir barmeel^il-chall 
il-fallah kassar^il-hatab 
kowwast uees w^irrairi 
bfowwi kalbkcfon fi^l-lail? 
in-nowar bya'rfoo itabbloo 

ij-jarad bicharrib ko^'oll ishi 
la^tdachchinsh kteer 
fattinui ida nseet 


bihasib 'ala achir bara 
hal-walad bihibb ish^mit 
la tkatilsh ktfbll iiisan 
boo daiman biliawil yimloos 

meen bi'alij achook il-mareed? 

mtfbsh lazim it'ando 

bitreed itkatibni mia mdbdde la 

nihna sharatn^k 

haz-zalame bifasil kteer 
m'allimna bi amilna mleeh 

atla'na^l-bahri 'al-barr 

imbareh amtarat^ed-dobnya 
iktarab minna^l-cbatar 
ij-jarayed a'lauat id-dastoor il- 

Derived Forms, cf. §§ 132 sq, 
n Form: cf, §§ 134-137. 

He forbade us distiuctly to do 

Empty the vinegar-barrel. 
The peasant has split the wood 
I shot a porcupine and a badger 
Does your dog bark at night? 
The gipsies know how to play 

the drum. 
The locusts destroy everything 
Do not smoke much. 
Remind me, if I should forget. 

Ill Form: cf. §§ 138—140. 

He takes his due to the last para. 
This child loves to quarrel. 
Do not quarrel with everybody. 
He always tries to shirk his work. 

Who is attending your sick 

You must not be disobedient to 

Will you write to me from time 

to time? 
We have made a bet (or agree- 
ment) with you. 
This man haggles much as to price. 
Our teacher treats us well. 

IV Form: cf. § 141. 
The boatman has brought us to 

the land- 
It rained yesterday. 
The danger lias come nearer to us. 
The newspapers have announced 
the Osmanli Constitution. 


— 123 — 

atlakat ashjar ir-rtf'omman 

aftarna^l-yom sabr 

akaltoo lahm razal? 

la tihmloosh wajbatktfbn 


fareed bi'anis kteer mleeh 


ithazzar meen jai? 
itfakkar b^illi biddak tihkeeh 
tchiyib min hon 
btitkaddam shwi shwi 
iut btitkabbar 'alaina 

hada^l-chashabbyitcharrat mleeh 

il-yachoor lazim yit azzal 
hadi_,t-tanjara lazim titbiyad 
ala hal-hal rayih id-dalo yitkassar 

beerna lazim yitfarrar hadi^s-sana 


la twachidna ya seedi 

tshataroo ya ooUd 

hotim daiman byitfacharoo bi 

ma hadan bihibb yitnazal 'an 


bidna^l-yom nitsabak sowa sowa 
itkasalt la issa kteer 
bitreed nitsharak ma' ba'd? 

The pomegranate trees have 

We have breakfasted on prickly- 
pears to-day. 
Have you eaten gazelle meat? 
Do not neglect 3'onr duties. 
Have you explained to him the 
arithmetical example? 
Fareed is very entertaining. 

V § 142. 

Guess tvho is coming? 
Think of what you wish to say. 
Take yourself away from here. 
You will make progress by and by. 
You show yourself haughty to- 
ward us. 
This wood can be easily worked 
by the joiner. 
The [horse-] stable must be cleaned. 
This metal pot must be tinned. 
In this manner the [well-] bucket 
will be broken. 
Our cistern must be emptied this 


VI. Form: cf. § 143. 

Do not take it amiss in us, Sir! 
Be diligent, children! 
They are always proud of their 

None likes to forego his rights. 

We will race together to-day. 
You have been now lazy enough. 
Do you wish that we enter into 
partnership ? 

124 — 

hadi ^1-mdeene mobsh mo'omkiu It is impossible to besiege this 

tithasar town, 

itsahabna ma' akbar a'daua We have made friends with our 

greatest enemies. 

infa'al : 
injarah^il-'askari bi rijlo 


insarakat dikkanit 'eesa moosa 

in'azal^ il-ma'moor 
intalabt la_l-mahkame 
inchada't feek 
insalabt min ihkooki 
injabart a'mal haik 
in'azamt imbareli 


iktarabna laj-jabal 

intasarnakoom imbareh 

rajool almaui ichtara' faun it-tab' 

ishtabakat uar^il-harb 

istalam waseefto 

iftakar fee achir iyam hayato 

ishta'alat in-nar 
iftakaroo feena 


ibyadd il-kmash 

isfarrat owrak il-ashjar 

isw^dd id-dhan kteer 

Vir Form: cf. § 144. 

The soldier has been wounded 
in his foot. 
The land has been ploughed. 
The shop of Isa Musa has been 

The official has been dismissed. 
I have been cited to the court. 
I was mistaken in you. 
I have been robbed of my rights. 
I was compelled to act thus. 
I was invited yesterday. 

VIII Form: cf.%% 145—148. 

We have approached the mountain. 
We expected you yesterday. 
A German invented the art of 

The torch of war was burning. 
Ke assumed office. 
He became poor in the last days 
of his life. 
The fire burnt. 
They thought of us. 

IX Form: cf.% 149. 

The tomatoes have become red. 
The field has become green. 
The stuff (woven) has become 

The leaves of the trees have 

become yellow. 
The colour has become very dark. 

125 — 

i'wajj fikro 

Twarrat 'aino^il-yameen 

izrakket is-sama 

His thought has become distorted. 
He lost his right eye (lit: he 

became blind in his right eye). 
The sky has become blue. 

istaf al : 
istakbalna mleeh la achir daraje 
istansartak tlat sa'at 
taffartni la achir daraje 
istajalua kteer 
ista'malna kot)ll ko'odritna 
istachbarna 'annak 
hada^r-ajo^bl ista'jar baiti 
il-mareed istafrar kolDll shi 

istarjaitoo tsafroo fi 
istahsan fikrak? 


X Form: cf. §§ 150—153. 

He received us very well. 
I have waited for you three hours. 
You have tried me very much. 
We have hurried ourselves greatly. 
We used all our strength. 
We enquired after you. 
This man hired my house. 
The sick person vomitted every- 
Did you dare to travel by night? 
Your thought pleased him. 

marmar 'eeshto bi eedo 

meen bya'ret ifalfil roozz? 
moosh lazim itdahrij ihjar 'al- 

laish bitshamshim kol3ll ishi? 
'arbij mleeh ya 'arbaji 
tmachmad ko^oll yom marrtain 
meen illi tabtablak ala sahrak 
btikdar tzahzihna min matrahna? 

laish bitcharbish haik? 

Verbs with four Radicals. 
cf. § 154. 

He himself embittered his own 

Who knows [how] to steam rice? 
You must not roll stones into 

the valley. 
Why do you smell at everything? 
Drive well, o driver. 
Gargle twice daily. 
Who patted you on the back? 
Can you shift us (i. e. by lifting) 
from our place? 
Why do you scratch so? (only 
used of the pen). 

tafa'lal: Verbs of four Radicals 

with the Prefix t. 

ko^oll ishi lazim yitmasmar mleeh Everything must be well nailed. 

— 126 — 

suauak byitchalchaloo 
md'osh mleeh titbarbak 


laish daiman bitkzakizcala snanak? 

bal-hajar mtfbsh mobmkin yit- 

za'za' abadan 
habb. ir-robmman itfarfat 

la titsarsabsh ya walad 
min aish tbalbal id-daftar? 

stfb'alat 'anis-sihha 
u halobmma jarran. 

keef halak or int or sahbtak 
il-hamdillali kteer mleeh 
bafainmal or inshallah bitkoon 

inshallah fafait min ra btak 

bitshoof halak issa shwi ahsan? 

mamnoon or kattir chairak il- 

hamdilla sihliti rij'at li 
keef ahwal il-mitshowwish? 

sihhet abook 'am btithassau? 

mamnoon la sot)'alak, 'am byit iiassan 

shwi shwi 
towwalat kteer hatta rij'atlo'afeeto 
keef hatta sihrak 'owwar halo? 

hs4no jifil u wiki' 'al-ard 

Your teeth are loose. 

It is not nice to pretend that 

you are so badly oft. 
It is not nice to let food spill 

on to the floor. 
Why do you always clench the 

It is impossible to move this stone. 

The seeds of the pomegranate 
have been taken out of their 

Do not be frightened my boy. 
With what has the copy-book 
been wetted? 

Inquiries as to Health 

How are you? 

Thank God, quite well. 

I hope (or if it please God,) that 

you are well? 

I hope that you have recovered 

from your fright. 

Do you find {lit: see) yourself a 

little better now? 

Thank you I am well again {lit: 

my health has returned to me). 

How are things going with the 

Does your father make progress 
in recovery? 
Thank you for your kind enquiry 
he is progressing slowly. 
His recovery took a long time. 
How did your brother-in-law 

injure himself? 
His horse shied and he fell. 

— 127 — 

jroohak byishfoo 'an kareeb 
na'am ij-jarab illi fi rijli biteeb 
kawam, amma ij-joorh illi fi 

wijhi bilowwil aktar 
mit'allmi sittak kteer? 

hee chalye min^il-waja', amma 
mdayaka kteer min faksh mafsal 

lazim nobrbobtha bi rabta 
challeek hadi u ana achiyit lak 

fatlha nasra fl bahimha btikdar 

wastani lazim tinfitih 
shoo mal') mart 'ammak? 
rasa byo"bja ha kteer 

ho^otti lazka barde 'ala jibhtik 
u ba'dain bitteebi kawam 

nassfi^j-jolDrh bit'inni bi mai fatre 

ma 'dbmrak tikbal inn ifoot shee 

bi jo'brh maftobh 

ida kot)ntoo tamaloo hasab amri 

bitteeboo 'an kareeb 

ma 'oomrak tikshir kishrit jdbrli 

w j o'brh, 1 aish moomkin y itsabbab 

'anno tsimmim 

la tshilsh har-rabta hatta a'dinlak 

hi da'boblet dowa, hee btinfa'ak 

Your wounds will soon be healed. 

Yes, the scratches on my leg will 

heal quickly, but the cut in my 

cheek will take longer. 

Is your grandmother suffering 

much pain? 

She is free from pain, but greatly 

inconvenienced by the dislocation 

of her wrist. 

We must put on a bandage. 

Keep quiet while I sew up 

your wound. 
She got a thorn in her thumb 
can you pull it out? 
The gathering on your middle- 
finger must be lanced. 
What ails your mother in-law? 
She is suffering from a severe 

Put (f.) a cold compress on your 
forehead and stay out of the 
hot sun and you will soon be 

Cleanse the wound carefully with 
luke-warm water. 
Do not allow anything to get 

into an open wound. 
If they will follow my orders 

they will soon be well again. 
Never scratch a scar or wound, 
it may easily produce blood- 
Do not remove this bandage 

until I allow you to do it. 
Here is a tabloid, it will relieve 


1* cf. § 22. Addenda. 

— 128 — 

dowwibhad-dawa bimai w^ishrab 

tlat marrat kooll yom min^id- 

dowa_l- mdowwab 

ma fish ishi mobchtir hee ma'ha 

taja"obk wakti 

hi katra o'oktri nobkta fl kooll 'ain 
ko^bll sa'taiu 
il-mareed lazira yibka nayim hadi 
akammin yom 
kan mai hobmma^j-jobm'a^l- 
madye, amma^l-liakeem a'tani 
dawa illi nifi'ni 
aimta lazim tochod^^id-dowa? 
lazim tochdo ^chir ko^oU ishi kabl 
ma trooh 'at tacht 
chod had-da'boole sa'a kabl ow 
kadaish sarla ma'o hal-kahha? 

kan ikd'ohh mobdde taweele 
silihtik mo'bsh mill ma lazim, 

lazim itdeeri balik aktar 

deer balak hatta ma yinballoosh 

rijlaik willa bitrfishshih 

is-sana il-madye kkn fl jadari fi^l- 

ida ma sar waja' snauak ahsan 
"an kareeb rooli la 'iud hakeem 

waram rijlak jai rain faksh mafsal 

bard baseet bisabbib fl manach 
hal-blad marrat kteere bardiye 
u hoomma 
kan at 'an kareeb tirma lammau 

sim'at il-achbar il-'atle 
bat'ammal tseer 'au kareeb ahsan 

Dissolve this medicine in water 
and take the solution three 
times a day. 
It is nothing serious, she is 
suffering from a temporary in- 
Here are drops, put one drop 
into each eye every two hours. 
The patient must lie quiet for a 
few days. 
I had fever last week, but the 
doctor gave me quinine which 
cured me. 
When shall she take the medicine? 
The last thing before she goes 

to bed. 

Take the tabloids either an hour 

before or an hour after meals. 

How long has he already had 

this cough V 

He has been coughing a long time. 

Your health is not what it ought 

to be, you must take greater care. 

Take care not to get wet, for you 

will get a cold in the head. 

There was small-pox in Jerusalem 

last year. 

If your tootl'.ache is not better 

soon, go to a dentist. 

The swelling on your foot is due 
to the spraining of your ankle. 

A simple cold will often produce 
fever and chill in this climate. 

She was near fainting when she 

heard the bad news., 

I hope you will soon be better.' 

— 129 — 

ma'o ftkk u min shan hada moosh 
l&zim yihmil hmal tkeele 

safar fi^s-sikke 
ana bareed as&flr 'ala yafa aimtan' 
es-sikke bitsafir es-sa'a tl^te 'arabi 
hadi bit'adil iya sa'a franjiye? 

esh-shams btitla' issa es-sa'a sitte 
u noiDSS u min shan hada bitkoon 
es-sa'a tlate 'arabiye m'adle 
la^s-sa'a tis'a u nooss franjiye 
bikoon mleeh ida bitdabbir hatta 
ikoou Indak srafe laishinn illi 
bibee" il-bilyettat moosh majboor 
yoosrdof masare 
kallif chatrak a'teeni bilyett la yafa 
bi iya daraje bithibb itsaflr? 
Ida kan fi tlat darajat, baliibb 

arooh fl^t-tanje 
'indna bass darjatain minshan 

il-msafreen fl has-sikke 
moljmkin yitsafar fi_d-daraje_t- 


mo^bsh kteer makbool laish amrar 

kteere byinzihim el-wahad ma' 

nas min jamee' esh-shislian 

laish inn il-hal haik a teeui bilyett 


bahibb ikoon 'indi bilyett min 

la akamm min yom btichdim? 
btichdim bass la yoniain. ya'ne 
talit yom min ba'd ma tachod il- 
bilyett lazim tirja" 

He has a rupture and therefore 
he must not carry heavy burdens. 

Travel by Train. 

I wish to ^0 to Jaifa, when does 

the train leave? 

The train leaves at 3 o'clock in 

the morning, Arabic time. 

What hour is that according to 

European time? 

The sun rises now at 6.30 so 

that the third hour, Arabic, is 

9.30 European. 

You had better supply yourself 
with change, as the ticket clerk 
is not obliged to change money. 

Please give me a ticket for Jaffa. 
What class do you wish to travel? 
If there are three classes, I wish 
to go second. 
We have only two classes for 

passengers on this railway. 
It is possible then to travel 

second class? 
It is not very pleasant, as one 
often comes into close contact 
(lit : is pressed) with all sorts. 
In that case, give me a ticket for 
the first class. 
I should like to have a return- 
How many days does it last? 
It lasts only for two days; that 
is, on the third day after you 
take the ticket you must return. 

'* or aimta. 

A Manual of Palestiuean Arabic. 



Mda ma bikaffeesh 'ala ktfbll 
Ml. il-bilyett lazim tichdim 'al- 
kaleeletlat^iyam miu yomachdha 

killet ma biy'tnoo bi^rahet^il- 

msafreeu fi has-sikke 
baftkir iniio lazim il-wahad isallira 
bi^l-ishi illi mtfbsh moomkin 

byikdaroo^l-msafreen imarrkoo 
shee min^il-'afsh balash? 

na'am ya seedi walakin bass 
akammiii keelo byitmarrakoo 
balash li dbjret ed-darb la^l- 
bizeed 'an^il-'iyar^il-ma'roof 

ralye kteer 
fi Indak 'afsh kteer 
Mndi bass sandook kbeer u shwiyet 
'afsh byiiihimloo bi^l-eed 
btikdar tachod il-'afsh illi byinli- 
mil bi^l-eed ma'ak "al-'arabiye 
sandookak lazim yinliatt bi 

karroosit el-'afsh 
sandookak imwazzan ii fl 'iyar 
zayid "an il-ma'roof u lazim tidfa' 
chams fi ankat choosol)siye 
chasamt il-keeme illi ilna hakk 

na'am ya seedi ana chasamt 

kooll illi lazim u hi hon waslak 

saffar il-babor owwal marra min 

shan mashiwS-sikke? 

issa 'ammaloon ya'too 'alame u 
ba'd akammin dakeeka bisaffir 
il-mo^odeer min shan isaflr 


That is by no means enough. 
A ticket should be available for 
at least three full days from 

the day of issue. 
The convenience of travellers is 
little considered by this railway. 
I suppose one must submit to 

what one cannot change. 

Have travellers any free luggage? 

(lit: can the travellers let slip 

through any luggage). 

Yes sir, but only a few kilos are 

free, and the rate for overweight 

{lit: over the weight which is 

known) is high. 

Have you much luggage? 

I have only one large trunk and 
some small hand-luggage. 

You may take the hand-luggage 
into your compartment, your 
trunk must be put into the van. 

Your trunk was weighed. It is 
over-weight and you must pay 
5 francs extra. 
Did you deduct what is allowed 
as free luggage? 
Yes sir, I deducted all that is 
necessary and here is your receipt. 
Has the locomotive whistled, 
the first time, for the departure 
of the train? 
There! they are giving a signal; 
and in a few minutes the guard 
will whistle for the train 

to start. 

— 131 — 

ya hadret il-mtf'odeer ana rayih 
'ala yafa lazim ahowwil fl shee 
mat rah? 
la ya seedi hada^l-babor bibka 
mishi ma bit'dbzsh tinzil 

er-robkb 'al-chail u fi^l- 
btikdar twasseeni bi mkare mleeh 
u byittakal 'alaih? 
naam ana ba"raf w^had mleeh 

biddi adillak 'ala mahallo 
'indak chail lar-rdbkb min shan 

na'am ya seedi 'indi chail mlah 
kteer u kooUhobn m'owwadeen 
yimshoo rahwan 
hada 'kl kteer ana bihimmni kteer 
hatta ikoonoo^l-chail mobsh 

dawabi byin'tiui feehobm kteer 
mleelj fi int bitshoof innou' mitl 
ma koolltillak 'anhou 
ya kamil mashshi^l-chail 
hadol il-chailbibiyin iunomtf'o'tana 
feehon mleeh u bibinoo kawaya 
hobm kteer kawaya ii byikdaroo 
isafroo md'odde taweele bidoon 
ma yit'aboo 

hal-chail feehoon shee chisle mo'osh 

la hobm 'S-kleen mitl^l-ranam 

ma bi'iddoo wala byirfsoo 
hada^l-hsau bibiyin 'aueed ma 
biddobsh yimshi la kot)ddam 

Guard, I am going to Jaffa; 

must I change any where? 

No sir, this is a through train 
{lit: this locomotive continues 
going) you need not change. 

Riding and Driving. 

Can you recommend me a good 

and faitliful mukari [groom]? 

Yes, I know a good one, I will 

show you his place. 

Have you riding-horses on hire? 

Yes sir, I have very good horses, 

and tliey have all been trained 

to amble. 

That is very good. I am anxious 

the animals should not be galled. 

My animals are well cared for, 
and you will find that they are 
what I represented tliem to be. 

Kamil, lead the horses round. 

These horses seem to be well 
cared for and appear to be strong. 

They are very strong and can 
endure long journeys (lit: can 
work for a long time) without 
much fatigue. 

Have these horses any bad liabits? 

No they are as gentle as lambs; 

they neither bite nor kick. 

This horse seems to be stubborn, 

he refuses to go on. 

1* for inhdbn. 

— 132 

hada bass laish inno kan fi_l- 
yachoor u min md'odde ma 


bibiyin li inno raddar ma bahibbish 

arkab 'ala lis^n 'atil 

bakdar a'akkid lak inno ahda 

hsan mtfbmkin yinwajad 
challi hal-hsan yitsarraj u challi 
es-sayes illi 'indak ijarrib hada 
'indak bass srooj 'arabiye? 
la 'iudna srooj franjiye jdad la 
zabayiuna, nihna datna minfaddil 
srooj 'arabiye 
lazim tdeer balak min sh^n tib'at ]i 
sarj mleeh laish iuni ma baridsh 
inn sahr il-hsan illi barkab 'alaih 
yitdabbar or yif akwar 
t'akkad ya seedi bisihh lak^il- 
ahsan min il-kot)ll. hsanak bikot)n 
ilo kaman Ijam franje 
shoo jins^il-hadwat illi la chailak? 
il-ba'd ilo'bn hadwat 'arabiye w^il- 
ba'd hadwat franjiye 
shoof hatta ikoonoo^l-hadwat 
maknat mleeh fl hal-blad^il- 
mihjre bidiyi' il-hsan hadot)too 

bi kooll chooife u biseer araj 
iiua badabbir kol3ll hal-ashya 


bareed asboof 'ala kshatat 

towwil er-iakkabe^l-yameeniye 
u kassir^er-rakkabe_sh- 

shamaliye shwi 

ib'at il-cbail illi nakkaitho1:)n ma' 

il-'dbdad bdbkra bakkeer es-sa'a 


This is only because he has been 

in the stable and has not lately 

been saddled. 

He seems to me to look vicious; 

and I should not like to ride 

a bad horse. 

I can assure you he is the 
quietest liorse which can be found. 

Have this horse saddled and let 
your groom try him. 

Have you only Arabic saddles? 

No, we have new European 
saddles for our customers, but we 
ourselves prefei- Arabic saddles. 

You must be careful to send me 
a well-fitting saddle; for 1 do 
not wish that the back of the 
horse which I ride be galled. 

Be assured Sir, you will receive 

everything of the best. Your 

horse will also have a European rein. 

What shoes have your horses? 

Some have the Arabic shoes and 
others have the European. 

See to it, that the shoes are 
well fastened; in this stony 
country a horse can easily lose 
his shoe and get lame. 

I shall attend to all these things 
promptly. ; 

I wish to examine the straps of 
the stirrups. 
Lengthen the right stirrup a 
little and shorten the left one. 

Send the horses with the har- 
ness (plur). which I have selected 
to-morrow morning at five o'clock. 

— 133 — 

ko'olt la mdbstafa liatta ihiyi^l- 
na'am ko'olt^illo (for i\o) amma shaf 
inn reeshe min^er-riyash kanat 
maksoora lazim titsallah kabl 
ma nikdar nista'mil 'arabiyitna 
rool.i fi wa§si 'ala 'arabiye min 

illi bi'ajjir^il-'arabiyat 
hadi^l-'arabiye mobsh mleeha bee 
wischa w^iJ-masanid immazza'een 
u 'iddit il-chail balyane 

rajji' 'arabeetak ya 'arbaji u kool 
la m'allmak min shan yib'at 
'arabiye nseefe ma' j5z chail 

Mddithol3n mleeha 
il-'arabiye ijat ft hee mitl ma 

sook la jihhit ramallah 

wakkif orhasib'ya arbaji minreed 
ninzil min shan^in-shoof lial- 

sook la tidribsli il-chail, bi_,l- 
kol3rbaj ; limmin yiuzaloo "an-et- 
tall la taht wakkifhou! 
bireedoo^s-sitUt yirkaboo la 

ko'bddam ? 

na'am walakin lazim tintibih aktar 

lam'amalt^el-chail uma titka'sh 

bi koorb^jak 

inhar il-chail darb^il-karroosa 
mleeha ft lazim nisal 'al-'ain kabl 
is-so~ohr ho^ouak u ni'lif il-chail 

Did you order Mustafa to 

prepare the carriage? 
Yes, I told iiim, but he found 
that one of the springs was bro- 
ken. It has to be mended, before 
we can use our carriage again. 
Go and order a carriage from 

the livery-stable-man. 
This carriage is not good! It is 
dirty, tiie cusliions are torn and 
the harness of the horses is 
falling to pieces. 
Take your carriage back, driver, 
and tell your master to send 
a clean carriage with a pair of 
well-harnessed horses. 
The carriage has come and is 

as you ordered. 
Drive in the direction of Ram- 


Stop driver! we wish to descend 

and examine tliis ruin. 

Drive on! Do not whip the horses 
when going down hill ; hold 

them in! 
Do the ladies wish to drivrt further? 

Yes, but you must be more care- 
ful in the management of the 
horses and do not crack your 


Urge on the horses, tlie road is 
good and we must reach the 
spring before noon, as we wish 
to rest there and feed the horses. 

1* lit: settle account. 

134 — 

btikdar itdeer_,iKarabiye hou? 
biddi ajarrib adeerha shwi fok 
matrah ma darb il-karrosa shwi 


btikdar itdeer il-'arabiye bi^t- 

tarjee" la wara lakin deer balak 

"ala yadd il-chandak 

btil>dar issa tit" am u tiski^l-chail 

u baM ma nitfarraj "al-balad 

biddna nirja' 'al-bait 


wain il-lokandaji? 

ba'att warah "ammalo bishiyi' 

akammin daif 
hiyo jai 

allah ma'ko'on ya seedi ana mab- 

soot bshoftak shoo btoVmo^br? 

fi Mndak akammin oda fadye? 

na'am ya seedi issa rahat jama'^a 

u ana 'indi akammin oda mak- 

ba'ooz oda la akammin yom 
fl iya tabik il-dbwad? 
ba'dlio'on fi^t-tabik^il-owwal am- 
ma^l-ahsan fl^t-tabik it-tani 
hada mlayimni kteer ma bahibb 
oda fi^l-ardiye wala taht is-sath 

hal-o^a bittooll 'ala^l-liosli u 

hadeek feelia mansar 'ala darb 


la hada wala had^k mUyimni 

darb il-karrosa wil-hosh feehoon 

rosh kteer 

Can you turn the carriage here? 
I will try to turn it a little 
further on, where the road is 


You can back the carriage here, 

but be caretul not to back too 

far on account of the ditch. 

You will now feed and water the 

horses and after we have 

explored this village we will 

drive liome again. 

At the Hotel. 

Where is the hotel-keeper? 
I have sent for him, he is seeing 
oft some guests. 
Here, he is coming. 
Good afternoon, sir, I am glad 

to see you. How can I serve you? 
Have you any rooms vacant? 
Yes, sir, a party has just left 

and I have some pleasant rooms. 

I need a room for a few days. 
On which floor are the rooms? 
Some are in the first story, but 

the best rooms are in the second. 
This suits me well. I should not 

like to have a room on the 

ground-floor or under the roof. 
This room looks upon the court, 

that one has a view of the prin 

cipal street. 

Neither the one nor the other 

suits me. The street and court 
are both too noisy. 

— 135 

hi hon rair oda bittdt)!! 'ala^l- 
bo'ostau w^il-bahr bibiyin 'ala 

i&da bi'jibni la achir daraje. ma 
ajmal hal-mansar! 

il-bait taht amrak. ba'd nas bifadd- 
loo^l-mansar 'ala darb_^il-karro- 
sa walakiu kol)!! v/ahad hasab 
doko. ana mabsdot illi int radi 

ib'at 'afslii 'ala odti. hoo bi^- 
jdbmli chams kita' 

tikram yk seedi! 

la tinseesh ithiyi^ l-6da min shan 
el-lail w it-challeeha tithowwa 

11 hon sanadeekak u shanttak. 
wain btob'moor ahdbtthoon? 

hobtt es-sandook il-kbeer fi hal- 
kdbrne walakin mdosh kareeb 
bi^zyade 'ala_l-hait haik hatta 
akdar aftaho bi chiffe. btikdar 
thoott ish-shanta 'ala^l-kdbrsi 
hadd esh-shtfbbbak 
el-'attal ba'd ma achadsh objd'orto 
hoo talab ed-dar^him 
hi ed-darahim. hoo tkaffal "ala 
nafso in yihmil 'afshi bi frankain 
idfa= kaman oojret el-'arbaji illi 
j4bni miu^el-mahatta la hon 
objo^orto kanat kaman frankain 
daf^'t la^r-rjal ft hoom kauoo 


jeeb li mai ^soochne biddi '^arassil 
hali ft ahlook 

^* instead of <J^ '^* lit: wash my body 
sabahsbathe out of doors. 

Here is another room which looks 
over gardens, and in the distance 
you can see tlie sea. 
That will suit me exceedingly 

well. what a wonderful view ! 
The house is at your service. 
Some people prefer a view of the 
street, but every one to his taste. 
I am glad that you are satisfied. 
Send my luggage to my room. 
There are five pieces in all. 
Certainly, sir. (lit: you shall be 
Do not forget to have tbe room 
put in order for the night and 
to have it well aired. 
Here are your boxes and travel- 
ling bags. Where do you wish 
me to put them? 
Put the large box into this corner, 
but not too near to the wall, 
so that I may open it conveniently. 
You may put the travelling-bag 
upon the chair near the window. 

The porter has not been paid, 

he asked for the money. 

Here is the money, he agreed to 

carry my luggage for two francs. 

Pay the driver who has driven 

me from the station as well. 

His price was also two francs. 

I have paid the men, they were 

Bring me warm water, I will 

wash and shave myself. 

/. e. bathe, thammamsgo to a bath-house. 

- 136 — 

kabl ma tinzal sheel es-sair or 
el-kshat 'an shantti 

wain il-mobstarah? 

imshi fi haz-zakook u ilfit ma' 
owwal lafti la^l-yameen u fi 
acliir iz-zakook bitlaki_l-mahall 

kaddaish objrit hal-oda fl^l-yom 
u kaddaish fi^j-jobm'a? 

fiiyam il-m6sam bikoonoo_,l-as'ar 

marrtain aktar minima^ mno'ot- 

lobb issa 

biddak akl u maname* 

laish inni bakoon tool en-nhar 
b^rra hatta ashoof el-ashya_l- 
rareebe bareed &chood bass 
oda wabde u badfa' cho'osoose 

'ala hal-hal bitkallif el-oda bi^^l- 
chidme w^ed-dow tlat frankat 


11 kaddaish btot)tloob 'al-wak'at 

el-ftoor bi frank el-rada bi frank 
u chamseen w^el-'asha ma' il- 
mbeed frankain 
kaddaish 'an kooll el-wak'at ii 

fl hal-wakt chams frankat yomiyi 
tiyib ana biddi akl u maname 

ana bi bali asaflr ma' il-babor illi 
byimshi bakkeer, wasseeli ala 

hi hsabak ya seedi 

Before you go down take the 

strap off my box. 

Where is the W. C? 

Follow this corridor and take 

the first turn to your right, at 

the end of the passage you will 

find the place. 

What is the rent of this room 

by the day, and how much by 

the week? 

During the season the charges 

are double what we are asking 


Do you wish board and lodging? 

As I shall be out sightseeing 

all day, I wish to take only 

the room and pay extra for such 

meals as I shall take. 

In this case the room with 
service and light will cost three 
francs per day. 
And what do you charge for 

the meals? 
Breakfast is one franc, lunch 
1.50 francs and dinner with 

wine 2.00 francs. 
How much is the full board 

and lodging? 
At this time five francs per day. 
Very well, I shall take board 

and lodging. 

I intend to leave to-morrow by 

the early train ; order a carriage 

for me. 
Here is your account, sir. 

1* for min ma 

2* lit: place for sleeping 

3* lit: falls 

— 137 

a'teeni kaime mfassale hatta 

akdar a'rif shoo saraft 

iina kdbnt mabsoot kteer min 
oojoodi fi lokandtakil-owadkanoo 
mrattabeen mleeh w^il-chidme 
kanat mleeha w^il-akl ladeed 

biseer attrajja jauab^el-chaw^ja 

min shan yib'at* sliabo 'ala baiti 

hal-hakeer ida kanoo shee marra 

b3ijoo la lion? 

ma*l6om ba'mal hada bi kooll farab 

'arabiyet^el-chawaja "ammal 

inhatt 'afshi fl^l-'arabiye? 

kooll ishi bi^t-tarteeb ; ma inta- 
sasli islii. hi shamseetak u 'asatak 

la tshilsh "ainak 'an jol)sdani ana 
bakoon taht ba'd dakeeka 
ish-shanta^l-kbeere marboota 
wara fi^l-'arabiye w^is-reere 
ma' el-'arbaji barra 
inschalla btinbsit 

Give me a detailed statement, 

that I may know what I spent. 

I was very well satisfied with my 

stay at your hotel. The rooms 

were well kept, the service was 

good and the food tasty. 

May I ask the gentleman to 

recommend my modest house to 

his friends, if they should ever 

come into this neighbourhood? 

Most assuredly, I shall do that 

with pleasure. 

The carriage of the gentleman is 

Has my luggage been put in 

the carriage? 
Everything is in order; nothing 
has been forgotten. Here are 
your umbrella and walking-stick. 
Do not lose sight of my hand-bag 
I shall be down in a minute. 
The large box has been tied 
behind the carriage, the little 
one is with the driver on the box. 
Good bye. 
A pleasant journey. 


is-sa'a kaddaish il-ftoor? 
btikdar tooftoor bain is-sa'a sab'a 
u tis'a. min ish-shob mno^oftotir 
ana hadir. yalla niuzal *ala odit 

btoVmo'br shai willa kahwe? 


At what hour is breakfast? 
You can breakfast between 7 
and 9 o'clock. We breakfast 
early on account of the heat. 
I am ready. Let us go down 

into the dining-room. 
Do you wish tea or coffee? 

1* lit: to send. 

A Mcinual of Palestineau Arabic. 


— 138 — 

'al-ftoor ranishrab kahwe franjiye 
ma' haleeb mfowwar 
kallif ch^trak iskdbb li finjan 

nawilni flnjan^il-kahwe 
hattait sobkkar? 
btoo'mtfbr baid? 
kallif chatrak or final ma'roof 
keef btob'mo'or ikoonoo hobm? 
btikdar tihsal "alaihobn masloo- 
keen, makliyeen, mashwiyeen wa 
haldomma jarran 
kallif chatrak baid maslook 
biddak il-baid jamid willa brisht? 
bareedhdbm brisht amma haik 

hatta ma ikoonoosh niyeen 
li sob' il-hass bakdarsh akaddim 
lak lahm lal-ftobi' ma fish 'ade 
fi hal-blad innbbu yakloo lahm 

fi hon bdbrrobl 
biseer akaddim lak minno? 
il-bbbrrd'ol akl mraddi w^imleeh 
la^s-sDiha 'al-ftbor 
laish ma bitjeeb il-chaddame^l- 

bitreed itdookk ij-jaras la^l- 

ya maryam laish hal-'aka kabl ma 
in-nar 'atle u ma ikdirtish 

aclialli^l-mai tirli 

haik shi ma. bisirsh iseer karaan 

marra. inti bta'rfi inna min'obz 

dairaan mai tirli la ,1-ftobr 

At breakfast we drink European 

coffee with hot milk. 

Please pour out a cup of coffee 

for me 
Pass me the coffee cup. 
Do you take sugar? 
Do you wish for eggs? 
Please (lit: let it cost your will). 
How would you like them? 
You can have them {lit: take 
them) boiled, fried, baked in 

ashes etc. 
Boiled eggs, if you please. 
Do you want the eggs hard or soft? 
I waat them soft, but so that 
they are not raw. 
Unfortunately (lit: to the mis- 
fortune of the happiness) I can- 
not offer you meat for breakfast. 
It is not customary to eat meat 
for breakfast in this country. 
Here is burghul^ 
May I help you to some? 
Burghul is a nutritious and 

wholesome food for breakfast. 

Why does the servant not bring 

the eggs? 

Will you be so good as to ring 

for the servant? 

Mary, why is it so long before 

the eggs come? 

The fire is bad and I could not 

get the water to boil. 

This must not happen again. You 

know that we always wish 

boiling water for breakfast. 

1* cf. National dishes. 

— 139 — 

naooleeni iz-zibde 
il-'asal^il-baladi kteer mleeh 

bikdar ooseek feeh 

bitreed itjarrib hat-tatle? 
aish hoo or h^da? 
dibs, hoo byin'mil bkammiyat 
kbeere w^in-nas bihibbooh kteer 

biddi adooko 

ma'ak l.iakk id-dibs kieer mleeh 

u ta'mto ladeede kteer 
bitreed tnawilni hadirtak tatlit^il- 
boordkan ? 
istanna shwi, issa byiji kam&n 

shwiyet cholDbz mhammas 
hona fi chot)bz asmar hoo shwi 
ma Mndaksh karadeesh mitl ma 
byichbzoo fi^l-ko'bra? 
ma'loom hihot)n jaibeenhoon 
il-cho"obz il-'arabi kteer ladeed 

ida kan taza u so'bchn 

ya maryam kaddmi la_,s-sitt ij-jat 

illi feeh il-karadeesh or il-kmaj 

jeebi kammin sahn isreer baM u 

akammin maFaket shai walakin 

mo'bsh mala'ik la_l-akl 

kattir chairak 

Pass me the butter. 
The honey of this country is 
very good. I can recommend it 
(lit: I can inform you about it). 
Will you try this preserve? 
What is it? (or, this?) 
It is grape honey. It is made in 
great quantities and the people 
like it much. 
I will try it. 
You are right; grape-honey is 

very good and of delicious taste. 
Will you (lit : your honour) pass 
me the orange marmalade? 
Wait a moment, there is yet 

coming some toasted bread. 
Here is black bread, it is a little 

Have you no flap-cakes such as 
they bake in the villages? 
yes! Here they bring them! 
Arabic bread is very tasty if it 
is fresh and warm. 
Mary, hand the lady the dish 

with the flap-cakes. 
Bring a few more small plates 
and a few tea-spoons, but not 
dessert spoons. 
Thank you. 


il-rada t'owwak il-yom. dakk ij- 

jaras or skr dakik ij-jaras? 
issa bidookk ij-jaras, yalla ninzel 

la taht 
bitreed tdbk'ol^d haddi? or janbi? 


Lunch is late to-day. Has the 

bell rung? 
The bell is now ringing, come, 
let us go down. 
Will you sit by the side of me? 

- 140 - 

biddi akool las-sobfraji hatta isdbif 
kaman la daifna 
hasau jeeb sikkeen ikbeere li 
sikkeentain srar ii kaman shoki 
kbeere u shoktain srar u ma'laket 
shoraba u ma laka sreere 
hi il-fowat u koobbai lal-mai u 
ko'bbbai lal-mbeed u kam^n milh, 
filfll, chardal u choobz 
ma biddaksh nitfet shoraba? 
hadi shorabet nabat? il-yom 'inna 

ma fish lahme fi^sh-shoraba 
ana mabsoot laish fi ilna samak 
il-yom, ma bisihhilnash fi ko'bll 
wakt samak 
is-samak nadir fl hal-blad? 
na'am or iwa lazim ijeebooh min 
yafa willa min tabariya, willa 
min il-o^ordolDn u min has-sabab 
bisihh lal-wahed samak taza bass 
limin bikoon it-taks barid 
fi lion samak immallah? 
na'am fi samak immallah ashkal 
kteere u fi kaman samak ton u 
sardeen min bahr yafa or min 
bahr ir-room 
il-yom fi rosto bakar. lahm il- 
bakar bikoon marrat kteere 'asi 
amma lahm^il-ranam ahsan 
il-'arab byamaloo aklat kteere 
min lahm il-fachd^il-makli 
w^il-kastaleta ii lahm maslook 

u zarb 
ya 'awad hadol sho~okaf lahm 

mas h we 

I will tell the waiter to lay a 
plate for our guest also. 

Hasan! bring a large knife also 

two small ones, one large and 

two small forks, a soup-spoon 

and a desert-spoon. 

Here are the napkins, a water- 
glass and a wine-glass and also 
salt, pepper, mustard and bread. 

Will you not take a little soup? 

Is it vegetable soup? We have 
a fast to-day. 

There is no meat in the soup. 

I am glad that we have fisli to- 
day, one cannot always get it. 

Is fish rare in this country? 

Yes, one must bring it from 
Jaff'a or from Tiberias, or from 
the Jordan ; and for this reason 
one can have fresh fish only 
when the weather is cold. 

Is there salt-fish? 

Yes, there are many kinds of 
salt-fish, there are also tunny 
and sardines from the Medi- 

There is to-day roast-beef. 

Roast-beef is frequently tough; 
but lamb is better. 

The Arabs make many dishes 
of meat; roast joints and cut- 
lets, boiled meat, and zarb\ 

Awad, these are pieces of meat 
roasted on a skewer! 

1* zarb is a whole animal roasted in an oven built of loose stones; the stove 
is also called zarb. 

— 141 — 

shoo byaVif hamad yootbol)ch? 
bya'raf yootbooch: shoraba, rot)zz 
imfalfal, habash u jaj mal.ishe, 
makaroone u yachue min jamee' 
mistwi hal-lalim mleeh? ma 
bhibbish il-lahm illi mo^bsli 

fi hal-blad byakloo bass il-lahm 
il-makle w^il-maslook mleeh 
byisbroo^r-robzz marrat kte'ere 
bi 'obsfor 
shoo hal-hboob il-ladeede? 
ismhon suobar u ft hal-blad bihib- 
boo ihittooo habb is-snobar fi_,l- 


il-'arab bi wijih^il-ijmal shatreen 


yimkin r^yeh tizhak min ij-jaj 
w^il-hamaa laish bisihhillna min 
it-tnain kteer 

fi said fi filsteen? 

na'am fi hon jins shot)niiar kbeer 
u kamaii jaj barri ii araoeb u 
so'bmman u jaj il-rab u ro'ozlan 

btob'mo'or akaddim lak yacline? 
*indak ashkal chdbdra kteer? 

iwa u 'ada 'an hada byakloo^n- 
uas hon nabat barri kteer, matalan 
warak cho"obbaize, illi ta'mo mitl 
ta'm is-sabanech w^ibyakloo jins 
shok ta mo mitl il-halyoon ismo 


byizra'oo hon halyoon? 

What can Hamad cook? 

He can cook soup, steamed rice, 

turkeys and stuffed chickens, 

macaroons and all kinds of 


Is this meat well done? I do not 

like underdone meat. 

In this country they eat meat 

well roasted and well boiled. 

Rice is often dyed with Safiiower. 

What are these tasty seeds? 
They are called snobar and in 
this country they like to put 

snobar-seed in the food. 
The Arabs are, on the whole, 

good cooks. 
You will perhaps become tired 
of chickens and pigeons, as we 
have both frequently. 
Is there game in Palestine? 
Yes, there is a large kind of 
partridge and also francolins 
{lit: wild chickens) hares, quails, 
woodcocks {lit: chickens of the 
woods) and gazelles. 
May I offer you some vegetables? 
Have you many kinds of 


Yes, and besides the people eat 

many wild plants e. g. the leaf 

of the mallow which tastes like 

spinach. They also eat a kind 

of thistle, its taste is like that 

of the asparagus, its name is 


Do they raise asparagus here? 

— 142 

la II ma inno fl fi hal-blad halj'oon 
barri kteer ma ta"amoohoosh 

matboocha hal-chobdra? 
la, makliye bi seerij 
btob'moor akaddimlak shwiyet. 
bo'odeen willa bid dak atmar 

hal-mishmshat shofithon bitsliahlie 

ho^om moosh mitl il-mislimish il- 
franji bibaidoo wa lakin mo'osh 
kteer mlah la^s-so^ohha 
hi choch u toot matbooch 

byakloo kteer tabeech hooloo fl 

na'am il-'arab bya'maloo aslikal 

ka'k kteere ii hd'olwayat 
bahibbil-baklawew^il-knafe kteer 
ma btishrabsh ishi 
hada^l-mbeed kteer chafeef 

w^imleeli la^s-soohha kteer 

la mamnoou. ana bishrab shwiyet 

mai Ida kanat marliye 

hadi mat marliye w^imkarrara 

u min beerna^l-chass 

iya atmar 'indko'on? 
Mnna fi^sli-shita bo^ordkan, lemoon 
ho'oloo, joz, loz, kol)ttain 'ajwe 
fi^s-saif fi toot, balah choch, 
swaida, mishmish, do'brrak, teen 
so'obbair u ba'dain Mnab illi 
byibka min haziran hatta tak- 
reeban la ""eed il-meelad 

No, although the wild asparagus 
grows here in large quantity 
they have not cultivated it. 

Has this vegetable been boiled? 

No, it has been fried in sesame-oil. 

May I offer you some pudding 
or do you wish for cooked fruit? 

These apricots look attractive. 
They are not like the European 
apricot; they are refreshing, but 
are not very wholesome. 
Here are peaches and cooked 

Do they eat many sweet dishes 

Yes, the Arabs make many kinds 
of cake and sweetmeat. 
I like baklawi and knafl much. 
You do not drink anything. 
This wine is very light and 

very wholesome. 
Thank yon. I will take a little 
water, if it has been boiled. 
This water has been boiled as 
well as filtered and comes from 
our own cistern. 
What kind of fruit have you? 
We have in winter oranges, sweet 
lemons, nuts, almonds, dried 

figs, dried dates and raisins. 
There are in summer mulberries, 
fresh dates, peaches, plums, 
apricots, nectarines, fresh figs, 
cactus figs and later, grapes 
which last from June till almost 

— 143 — 

btob'mot)r kahwe franjiye willa 
hal-kaliwe illi fi^l-fanajeeu is-srar 
mamoole to"'orki3^e 
hal-kahwe bala sookkar. il-'arab 
bisammooha mdbrra. btikdar 
tihsal kaman 'ala kahwe hilwe 
il-kahwe^,l-mooiTa ahsan la_l- 
hadm. il-'arab byishraboo kahwe 
moorra ba'd il-akl 
challoona usalli w^inkoom 'an 


Do you wish for European coffee 
or Arabic? 
This coffee in the small cups is 
made in the Turkish manner. 
This coffee is without sugar. 
The Arabs call it "bitter". You 
can also have sweet coffee. 
Bitter coffee is better for the 
digestion. The Arabs drink 

bitter coffee after food. 
Let us say grace and leave the 


il-chidme fi odit in-nom. 

wassi^l-chaddam hatta^^ifij'ikni 
bdbkra bakkeer 
biddi asaflr u min shan hada 

biddi^l-ftoor fi_,l-wakt 

iya sa^a bitreed^itfeek? 

mo'bsh ba'd is-sji'a chamse 
bitreed ftoor mitl^il-'ade willa 

shi choosoosi? 
il-ftoor il-baseet byikfeeni bi^t- 

taht amrak ya seedi 
ya jobrji farshi owa'iye bi t'inni 
u shoof hatta ma yibkash 'alai- 
hobn rabara 
biseer min issa achod soormaitak 
ma'i min shan amsalia? 
iwa so'ormaiti fi^l-koorne 
riji'^il-raseel min^il-kawer 

naam walakin nakis akammin 
kabbe u akammin koomm 


Order the servant to call me 

early to-morrow. 

I shall start on a journey and 

therefore wish the breakfast in 

At what hour do you wish to be 
awakened ? 
Not later than 5 o'clock. 
Do you wish the regular break- 
fast or anything special? 
The simple breakfast is sufficient 

for me. 
As you desire, sir, 
George, brush my clothes care- 
fully and see that no dust 

remains upon them. 

May I take your shoes with me 

now to polish? 

Yes, my shoes are in the corner. 

Has the washing come back from 

the laundry? 

Y^es, but there are still missing 

a few collars and cuffs. 

— 144 — 

fi ba'd kabbat w^ikmam usaf kfai 
fl^l-biro '? 

fi ba'd bass sitt kabbat ii jozain 

fi hal-hale lazim itrooh 'ala ma- 
hall _il-kawe w_itjeeb il-raseel 
illi nakis, laish ma bikaft'eesh la 

badabbir^il-mas'ale kawam 
meen rattab^il-yom odit^ia-aom 


keef mo'omkintkixin mo"ohmli haik! 
l.iatta iunawala hattat mai jdeede 
la^^sli-shoorb 'ala tawlet il- 

il-oda ituadddfat^il-yom fi^s- 
stfbbh II fareede achadat^il-rar- 
rafe ma'ha rain shan^itnassifha 

mahtoot fi^t-tacht sharashif jdad? 

naara ya seedi fi sharashif jdad 
w^ibyobt_il-mchaddat kamau 
achadoo hramat is-sobf? 

na'am it-taks^irtafa'at harartoo 

fi^l-iy^m^il-acheere bi hal- 

mobkdar hatta inn_is-sitt amarat 

hatta yibdloo hramat ^is-sobf bi 

hramat achafi" 

liada mleeh. ihraraat is-soof issa 

harayeeii bi zyade 

jeeb 11 kaman koobbayet mai taza 

u sham'a 
byob'moor^il- cli awaj akaman ishi ? 

Are there still enough fresh 
collars and cuffs in the chest 
of drawers? 
There are only six collars and 

two pairs of cuffs. 
In that case you must go to the 
laundry and fetch the missing 
linen, as it is not sufficient for 
the journey, 
I shall do it at once. 
Who arranged this bed-room to- 

How is it possible that she is 
so careless! She has not even 
put drinking water on the wash- 
The room has been cleaned this 
morning and Fareede took the 
water-bottle away to clean it. 
Has the bed been freshly sheeted? 
Yes sir, there are fresh sheets 
and the pillow-slips have also 
been renewed. 
Have the blankets been taken 


Yes, the temperature has risen 

so much during the last days, 

that Mistress ordered that the 

woollen covers should be 

replaced by lighter ones. 
That is good. Woollen covers 
are now too hot. 
Bring me yet a glass of fresh 
water and a candle. 
Does the gentleman wish any- 
thing else? 

145 — 

la, la tinsasli tfiyikni fi_l-wakt 


dd'okk^ij-jaras la^l-chaddame illi 

'alaiha^l-obwad, is-sitt bitljoobb 


btikdar itrooh 

il-hawayij illi 'ala sobfrit^il-loobs 
mo'osli mrattabeen mleeli 
byilzam is-soofia rata nseef 
u ma fish dababees 'ala^l- 

hal-awa'o mtf'osli lazim ikoonoo 
mahtooteen "ala^t-tacht. 'allik- 
htfbn fi chaz^nt^it-tyab 
wain hattait kameesi in-nom? 

fl raanashif nsaf m'allakeen? 
naam u ana tallait il-breek mai 
taza u hattait shakflt saboou fl 
sahn is-saboon 
la tinsash abadan tjeeb min sliani 
mai so~ochne la^l-raseel kabl^il- 
ftoor w^il-rada 
ko'obb il-mai^l-wischa min sahn 
il-raseel fl_,s-satl 
ko'obb^is-satl ktfbll yom marrtain 
aimta btoVmo'or hammam? 
bareed hammam barid fl_s-so'obh 
u hammam sobchn fl_l-'ashiye 

bitreed ikoou ish-sho'obbak 

maftooh willa msakkar? 
' bareed ikoon maftooh 
ii biddak kindeel willa sham'a? 


n^zzle^n-namoosiye kabl ma 

No; do not forget to awake me 

at the appointed hour. 

Ring for the chambermaid. The 

mistress wishes to see her. 

You may go now. 

The things upon my dressing-table 

have not been well arranged. 
The table requires a clean cover. 
The hairbrushes have not been 
washed and there are no pins 
upon the pin-cushion. 
These garments should not be 
lying upon the bed. Hang them 
in the wardrobe. 
Where did you put my night- 
Into the embroidered pocket. 
Have clean towels been hung up'? 
Yes, and I have filled the jug 
wish fresh water, and put a 
piece of soap in the soap-dish. 
Never forget to bring me hot 
water for washing before break- 
fast and lunch. 
Pour the dirty water from the 

washing-basin into the pail. 
Empty the pail twice a day. 
When do you want a bath? 
I wish a cold bath in the morning 
and a hot bath in the evening 
Do you wish the window open 

or shut? 
I wish it open. 
Do you wish for a lamp or a 

A candle. 
Let the mosquito-curtain down 

A Manual of Palestinean Arabic. 


146 — 

yiudw, willa btit'addabi 


fi hon kamaa barrash? 

fi u karsithon aslma' miri karsit 


issa kooll islii mrattab u ana 
bit'ammal iniiak bitnam mleeh 

lailtak sa eede 

before the light is struck, or 

you will suffer from mosquitoes. 
Are there sandflies here? 
There are, and their bite is more 

unpleasant than that of mos- 
Everytliing is now in order and 

I hope that you will sleep well. 
Good night. 

fi odit id-dyoof. 

ya ralye ana bastansir idyoof, 
dabbri hatta ikoon li mai soochne 
kfai min shan ish-shai 

hal-mazhariye 'an kareeb fadye 
hootti feel I a ba'd akammin warde 
hootti fl hal-mazhariye akammin 
zihrit chitmiye amraa bidoon 

tiyib hada mleeh 
ma ajmal haz-zihre 
hada loof 

il-maile_j-jo"owaniye mitl_il- 
moochmal il-aswad ii shoofi keef 
bitsakibma'hal-maile^ 1-barraniye 
illi chadra 
iz-zhoor itrattaboo issa 
min wakt illi tnassafat il-6da il- 
yom fl^s-soobh 'awad tjamma' 
shwiyet rabara 
ma bi'oozsh il-wahad yit'ajjab 
min hada fi hal-hawa^l-kawi 

w^it-taks in-nashif 
ista'jli (f.) u rabbri awani^z-zeene 
kaman marra u joorri slireetet 
il-rabara 'al-m(K)beelya 

In the Drawing-Room. 

ralye I am expecting visitors; 

take care that there is sufficient 

hot water for tea. 

We must still pick a few fiowe; s. 

This vase is almost empty; put 

a few more roses into it. 

Put into this bowl a few more 

hollyhock-flowers without stems. 

Good, this is nice. 

How beautiful this flower is! 

This is an arum. 

The inside is like black velvet, 
and see how the outside, which 
is green, harmonizes with it. 

The flowers are now arranged. 
Since the room was cleaned this 
morning, a little dust has col- 
One need not wonder at it, in 
this strong wind and dry 


Be quick and dust the ornaments 

once more and go over the 

furniture with a dusterJ 

— 147 - 

i*milt haik 

fa'idan shoofl sob frit isli-shai 

jeebi breek ish-shai u ko'oll it- 

takm illi bichobsso 
hobtti ko'oll ishi 'as-sobfra illi 

jeebi^il-ka'k it-taza illi chabzatoo 
hiyo ya sitt 

malli alit is-sbeerto'bs, u hot)tti_l- 
kanneene 'al-ard talit is-sdbfra 

la, la, challi hada. la tsha"leesh 
alit is-sbeertobs ba'd 
wakkfi is-sdbfra ish-shamiye is- 

sreere hoii u liadeek hooa^k 
wakkfi is-seeniye ddbrri u lizzeeha 
shwi la wara 
hada ahsan 

kanat mahtdota kteer 'ala sob il- 
kdbrne u kaii rao^brnkin innha tddka' 

la taht kawam 
Idbffi kdbruit hal-bsat la wara u 
iniddi_.l-bsat il-kbeer dot)rri 
hadi^l-boordai tmaz-za'at bi^l- 
chalis min^il-hawa 
liramin yitrattaboo_l-dbwad 
mobsh lazim itsabbib masraf 
kawibi fath ish-shababeek w^il- 
bwab willa biteer rabara "al-oda 
ii bifdod titcharbat 

hadi_s-sobfra mo~osh fl matrahha 

lizzeeha shwi la_sh-shamal 

shoofl ida kan fl kaz fl kooll^il- 

kdbllhoom clialseen ana 'miltho"'om 

bi eedi 

I have doue it. 
Then look after the tea-table. 
Bring- the tea-pot and the whole 
set which belongs to it. 
Place everything upon the side 

-table (lii: table pushed in the corner). 

Bring the fresh cakes which the 

cook (f.) has baked. 

Here they are, raad^m. 

Fill the spirit lamp, and put the 

bottle upon the floor under the 


No, no, leave it alone! Do not 

light the spirit-lamp. 

Put the little Damascus table here, 

and that one there. 

Put the tray straight and push 

it back a little. 

This is better. 

It was put too mucli at the corner 

and could easily have been 

knocked down. 

Roll back the corner of this rug- 

and pull the big one straight. 

This curtain has been completelj'^ 

crumpled by the wind. 

When the rooms have been set 

in order, you must never make 

a strong draught by leaving the 

windows and doors open, because 

dust flies into the room and it 

becomes disordered again 

This table is not standing in its 

place. Move it a little to the left. 

See if there is oil in every lamp. 

They are all in order. I have 

done it myself. 


liattait kaman kazaze jdeede 'al- 

kindeel illi m'allak? 
na am u ana dabbart kaman abajoor 
jdeed w^ifteele jdeede la_,l- 

kindeel it-tane 

jeebi rata_s-sdbfra illi shoorl is- 

wain hattaiteeh? 
mall toot 'a la raflf chazanet hawayij 
il-ko'"ottan illi mahtoota fl 1- 



kattir chairak 
issa kooll ishi fi_t-tarteeb 
intibhi la_l-bab w^istajli w if- 
taheeh halan limmin ido1)kkoo 

ish-shob kawi kteer u nihna mdbsh 
lazim inchalli hadan yisbo-Qr 

barra kteer 

Did you put a new glass upon 
the hanging-lamp? 
Yes, I have also put a new globe 
and a new wick on the second 

Bring the embroidered table-cloth. 

Where did you put it? 
It is lying upon the shelf of the 
closet for linen (Arab: -|- gar- 
ments) which is standing in the 
small corridor. 
Here it is. 
Thank you. 

Everything is now in order. 

Pay attention to the front-door 

and hasten to open it as soon 

as any one knocks. 

The heat is great and we must 

not let any one wait long outside. 


ya flan jeeb hatab u fahm u ba'dain 
il-hatab mablool shwi ma kansh 
machzobn mleehv 
mbala ya sitti walakin shtaraito 
owwal imbarih bass, min fallah 
ii baM ma nishifsh mleeh 
shtarait* hatab kteer? 
la kan rali aktar min^il-lazim n 
*ade *an hada kan 'ind ir-rajool 
bass karami khkr 
walakin^il-biyft' ma bikassirsh 
il-karami la shikaf srar? 

The Kitchen. 

N. N. bring the wood and the 

charcoal and then kindle the fire. 

The wood is a little damp. Has 
it not been well stored? 

Yes, my mistress; but I bought^ 

it of a fellah only the day before' 

yesterday, and it is not quite dry. 

Did you buy much wood? 

No, it was too dear, and besides '" 
the man had only big blocks. 

But does not the seller cut the 
blocks into small pieces? 

— 149 — 

bishakkifhobn imbala walakiii 
biseer fl wasach kteer fi^l-hosli 
amma lazim itdabbir halta iseer 
'indna hatab al.isan mia liada_,l- 
marra j-jai 
shaHi in-nar bi^il-kibreet 
la tkibbeesh kaz abadan fi^u-nar 
mobmkiu inuik tsabbibi charab 
kbeer bi hal-wasta 
issa shflit iu-uar illi bi_,l-fo"oru 
hootti taiijara feelia mai {or rakkbi 
tanjaret mai) 


ista'mli laj-jali bass mai tirli ft 
shwiyet saboon 

hada_ 1-marsal 

kabl mii tijli^t-tanajir sheeli 
minho'om bakaya_ t-tv'ibeech, willa 
btitwassach mait^ij-jali kawam 

is-shobu w^il-fanajeen u abareek 

il-kahwe w^il-haleeb w^isli-shai 

u jatat il-yachne w^il-lahme ft 

kooU baki awani^l-kisliaui byit- 

chabboo fi liadi^l-cliazane 

ma tho'otteesh abadan aw4ne 
fobchcbar ow ma dan fl hal-cliazane 

Well, he splits them, but it 
makes so much dirt in the yard. 

But you must see that we have 
better wood than this next time. 

Kindle the fire, here are matches. 
Never pour petroleum upon the 
fire, you mig''t cause by it a 
great accident. 
Thetireiuthe oven isnow burning. 
Put on a kettle of water. 

I have done it {lit : I have put on). 

For the washing of dishes use 
only boiling water and somesoap. 

This is the sink. 

Before you wasli the dishes take 

the remnants of food from them 

as otherwise the washing water 

will soon be soiled. 

The plates, the cups, the cofi'ee, 

milk and tea-pots, the vegetable 

and meat dishes and all other 

china dishes are kept in this 


Never put earthenware or metal 
dishes into this cupboard. 

fi^r-rfoof_il-'alyeenbyit-wakkafoo Upon the upper shelves the wine 

and water glasses are put, as 

well as the water bottles. 

These breakable things must be 

carefully put away each time 

they have been used. 

We will now return to the kitchen. 

Here, this is the dresser. 

In the drawer to the right you 

will find the spoons and the forks 

koobb^yat^ii-mbeed w_il-mai 

w^il-rarrafat kaman 
hadol^il-hawSyij illi byitkassaroo 
kawam lazim kololl niarra baM 
il-isti'mal yindabboo bi t'inni 
biddna issa in'awid 'al-matbach 
hi liadi soofrit_it-tahdeer 
fi_,j-jarrar illi 'ala 1-yameen 
bitlaki l-mala ik v.\ ish-shdbwak 

— 150 

u f^illi 'ash-shamal mowjoodeen 
is-sakakeen il-kbar w^is-srar 
iftah bab il-kism^it-tahtani 

min^il- chazane 
'ala hal-loha m'allakeen il-mararif 


u rair hawayij illi lazmeen la^t- 


'ala har-raff binhattoo^t-tanijir 
bihimmni kteer in ikoonoo kobll 
il-awani nsaf kteer 
lazim tijtihdi hatta tijli^s- 
sakakeen w^it-tanajir liatta 

iseeroo yilma'oo 

limmin idobb byad it-tanajir kooli 

li halan, hatta i'obdoo yitbiyadoo 

fl haj-jarra mowjoodeen manasliif 

il-matbach w^il-manashif illi la 

tausheef_il-koobbay4t u awani 


bad ma arjaitak hou kooll ishi 
bidna nrooh 'ala bait_il-mot)ne 

ma minVozish abadan ikoou Mnna 

kammiyat kbeere la^l-moone 

bab bait^il-mooue lazim daiman 

yitsakkar b^intibah, willa bifootoo 

1-bs^s la joowa ii bisowwoo illi 

bidlioon iyah 

m^iyet^it-tabeech lazim tinjab 

mill il-beer illi barra 

and in that to the left the large 
and small knives are to be found. 
Open the door of the lower 

From this board hang the cooking 


Here are the clay cooking-vessels. 

By the side of the oven you will 

flrd the cooking-spoon and other 

utensils necessary for cooking. 

Upon this shelf are placed the 

copper vessels and pans. 

I consider it most important that 

all vessels should be very clean- 

You must take care that the knives 

and the copper vessels are 

made bright. 
When the tinning {lit: whiteness) 
of the vessels disappears (lit: 
melts) let me know at once 
that they may be re-tinned. 
In this drawer are found the 
kitchen towels and the towels 
for the wiping of the glasses 
and the porcelain. 
After I have shown you every- 
thing here we will go into the 
We do not need to keep large 
quantities of provision.] 
The door of the storeroom must 
always be carefully shut, other- 
wise the cats will come inside 
and do what they wish. 
It is necessary to bring the water 
for cooking from the well outside. 

151 — 

bat'ammal inno iseer "indi 'au 

kareeb troomba fl^l-matbach 
u kanian ishi ba'd. lazim itdeer 
b&lak hatta ma tchalleesh ishi 
yabis ifoot fi kanayet_il-mai^il- 
wischa willa btinsadd bi ktfbll 

kanayet il-mai_,il-wischa btitnas- 
saf bis'oobe koolliye u 'ada 'an 
hada tanseefha bikallif mablar 

btikdar it'abbi fi liaz-zeer mai 

kadar iiajtak la ko'bll yom 
ij-jarra^l-kbeere ismha zeer 
il-anye^s-reere illi bijeeboo fiha 
1-mai miii^il-beer bisaramooha 
jarra w^in-nisw^n byihmlooha 
'ala rooshoon^ 
w^il-aiiye illi kaman asrar btit- 
samma 'asliye 
liadi il-anye is-syeere illi bikadd- 
moo filia mai bisammooha sharbe 
willa breek 
sakkir_il-beer tiyib hatta ma 
iftf'otsh feeh ishi rareeb 'allik 
kaman id-daloo fi^Uaktoo ana 
ma baridsh ashoofo abadan mah- 
toot 'ala_,l-ard ow fl^l-mai 

I hope that I shall soon have 

H pump in the kitchen. 

And yet another thing. You must 

be careful not to let anything 

hard enter the waste-pipe, as 

it is easily choked. 

The wastepipe can be cleaned 
only witli difficultly, and besides, 
its cleaning costs a great sum. 

This jar you may fill with the 

daily supply of water. 

A large jar is called zeer. 

The small vessel (jar), in which 

water is fetched from the well 

is called jarra. The women carry 

it on their head. 

A still smaller vessel is called 


This little vessel in which water 

is served is called sharbi or breek. 

Shut the cistern well, that no 
foreign matter may get into it, 
also hang the bucket on its 
hook. I never wish to see it 
left on the ground or in the 




bitchalli^l-raseel yitdabbar fl^l- Do you have your washing done 

bait? at home? 

na'am Mndna mara la hash-shi Yes, we have a woman on pur- 

1* pronounce s and h separately. 

152 — 

yom^it-talata u wahade taiiye 

min shanil-kawiy6m_il-cliamees 

ma bisabbibish liada ta'ab kteerV 

la ida kaa fl 'iad ii-wahed awane 

kfai lal-raseel u mai kfai u mahall 

mleeh la_,t-tansheef 

ana baftkir inn raseel il-kobttan 

byibyaijd mleeh fl btfostanoa 
naam amma byilzamik akammin 
sandi u akammin habl 
sar fl 'indna makawi u chashabe 
la^l-kawi walakin ba'd ma 'ind- 
nksh odit raseel 
in-nas birassloo hon barra limmin 
ikbbn it-taks' mleeh u int 'indak 
oda illi btikfi la_t-tawi w^it- 
tnishshi w_,il-kawi 
il-kcTotUn biseer kteer abyad fi 
^sh-shams w_,il-hawa 
na'am amma moosh lazim ikoou 
kteer kteer min hada ow had&k 
la^l-aw&'i^l-mlowwane illi lazim 
yitnashshafoo fl^l-fi u ba'dain 
yitfawwatoo halan la jdbwa 
ktfbll il-mai hon maiyet shita 
w^ikteer mleeha la hawayij 


il-rassale lazim tirsilhoon wit- 

bihhhbbn fl mai fatre u kawam 


bahibb ab'at shwiyit raseel kittan 


bakdar achbrak 'an rassale mleeha 

hee btirsil nseef btista'milsaboone 
mleeha w^ibtikwe tiyib 

pose on Tuesday and another 

to iron 'on Thursday. 

Is not that a good deal of trouble? 

Not when one has plenty of 

wash-tubs, sufficient water, and 

a good drying-ground, 

I think the linen would bleach 

well in our garden. 

Yes; you (f.) will need some 

posts and clothes-lines. 
We have already itons and an 
ironing-board but no laundry. 

The people here wash out-of- 
doors when it is fine, and you 
have a room which will do for 
folding, starching and ironing. 
The linen becomes very white 
in the sun and wind. 
Yes, but you do not want too 
much of either for coloured 
clothing which should be dried 
in the shade and be brought, at 
once, indoors. 
The water here is all rain-water 
and very good for woollens. 

The washerwoman must wash 

and rinse them in tepid water 

and dry them quickly. 

I wish to send some linen away 

to the laundry. 

I can recommend to you a good 


She washes clean, uses good soap, 

and irons well. 

1* instead of U^ 

— 153 — 

btifham tirsil hawayej soof u 

haw^yej imnashshay&t? 
na'am il-hawayej is-soof ma bidib- 
"boosh fi^l-raseel uhee bitnashshi 
hawayej kittan bi mahAra rareebe 
bat'ammal inna ma bitniyilsh il- 
kabbat kteer 
la; wala btichribho'on bi inna 
btihriko^on wala bi inna bitchal- 
leeho'on ibakk'oo bi bika' sada 
amal maroof ib'at la ko'oll il- 
lazim. ana ba'teek laiha illi bass 
'alaik itzeed "alaiha^l-a dad ba d 
ma fidd il-kd'o^a illi lazim 

Does she understand how to wash 

woollens and also starched things? 

Yes, the woollen garments are 
not shrunk in washing and she 
starches linen with great skill. 

I hope she does not make the 
collars too blue (lit: indigo). 

No, nor does she injure them by 
scorching or iron-mould = lU: let 

get spotty from rust spots. 

Please send to her ail that is 
necessary. I will give you a 
list to which you have only to 
add the numbers after you have 
counted the articles to be sent. 

laihet in-uiswan Woman's list. 

kamees niswAne 

kamees nom 


joz kalsat 

tannoora tahtk- 
! sidriye 

i tannoora 
I wazra 

I kamees tahtani 
I iaket 

! mahrame 



Ikabbet charj 

Pair of stockings. 


laihet^ir-rjal Man's list, 
kalsoon Drawers. 

1 Washing list. 

kamees tahtani Vest, 
kamees muashsha Starched shirt, 

sidriye Waistcoat, 

bantalon Trousers, 

kabbe Collar, 

kmam Cuffs, 

sidr Shirt-front, 

rabta taweele Tie. 

layhet^il-oolad Children's list, 
wazra bi kmam Pinafore. 

km&t or h\ks 

laihet il-bait Household list 


bait mchadde 
rata tacht 
rata sobfra 







bashkeer or fo'ota Napkin. 

A Manual of Falestinean Arabic. 


154 — 

riji" il-raseel min odet^il-raseel 

or il-marsal? 
soosanna'ambitjeebo bi sail hiyo! 

challoona nsliQofo w^insaDih kobll 
ishi immazza' 
bidna nibda bi kita' is-soof 

hot)tti kabbe^jdeedebadal kabbet 

is-sidriye hadi 

rtfbzzi or ooktbi akammin robrze 

fi hal-chiyata il-chait iukata' 

'ala^s-sahr fi miz' ma ahmal il- 


btikdari_tsallheeh ya saleeme? 
biddi ajarrib hoo shwi sHb 
byilzamo sabr u ida ma kobnteesh 

mistajle kteer kleer btihsali 'ala 

haz-zirr inkata' ma' shakfet ikmasli 

chito u htfbtt talito shakfet kittan 

chiyatti il-kabbe kteer mleeli a'mli 
issa 'rawe jdeede la hal-kalsoon 

hadol ij-jo'brbanat immazza'een 

kteer kteer ma byirtitobsh 'ad 

haj-jobrbaue^r-rijjaliye mamzob'a 

Mnd il-ka'b irteeha bi t'inni 

shbbfi! inti 'ainmal tista'mli rair 

no' sobfintilazimdaimautista'mli 

cheetan min dat il-16u 

ana baftkir l^zim yiu'mil ka' jdeed 

la haj-jobrbane 


immazza' kteer salllieeh bi kadar 

Has the linen come back from 

the laundry? 
Susan is bringing it in a basket. 
Here it is! 
Let us examine it and mend 

whatever is torn. 
We will begin witli the woollen 
Put on a (f.) new collar in place 
of the collar of this bodice. 
Put a few stitches in this seam 
the thread has been broken. 
There is a rent across the back; 
how careless of the washer- 
Are you able to mend it Saleeme? 
I will try, it is a little difficult. 
It requires patience and if you 
are not in too great a hurry 
you will succeed. 
This button is torn off with a 
piece of the stuff'. Sew it on 
and put a piece of linen under it. 
You sewed the neck-band on well. 
Now make a new button-hole 
for this pair of drawers. 
These stockings are too much torn, 
they cannot be darned any more. 
This sock has one hole in the 

heel; darn it carefully. 

Look! 3^ou are using a diff'erent 

kind of wool. You must always 

use yarn of the same colour. 

I think it will be necessary to 

knit a new foot to this stocking. 

The top of this stockiug is badly 

torn; mend it as well as possible; 

— 155 — 


il-imkanhatta yista raalba'd kaman 

marra laish ba'do jdeed chalis 

a'mali ma'roof naooleeni hadolak 

il-kd'onisaa bal.iibb ashoofhobn 

shakfet ktfbmm hal-kamees ISzim 

titsallah sboofi shoo btikdari 

ta'mli feeha 
no"okr^il-bat mamzob' il-mizi' 

byikdar yitsallah kawam 
ya sabha kallfl chatrik naooleeni 
il-chait il-abyacl il-kawi. la 
moosh hada, lioo tcheen kteer 
il-chait illi 'alahadi^^l-bakara arfa' 
tanyet rata has-soofra maftook 
bitreedi ta'mali ma'robf ii titneeh 
'ala^l-masheene laish inno'ateek 
u ana ma bhibbisli adowwe' 'alaih 
wakt kteer 
irti^l-cho'bzk fi hada_l-bashkeer 
u jarrbi t'aoodi ta'raali^n-nakshe 
irkai shakfe fl liadeek il-bdbrdai 
il-kidh kbeer kteer lar-rati 
ko'bll baki^l-bashakeer mlah? 

sho"()ftho"on kobllhoon u baslioof 
inho"on ho'bm u sharashif is-soofar 
w^il-maharim w^ibyootil-mchad- 
dat ma byilzamhoonsh tasleeh 
jarrib itsheel had61_il-booka' 
ba'dlio'bn booka' dihu ii rairhoon 
bo"oka' atmar 
sharashib hada^l-rata mkatta' 
ba'dho'bn; ii laish innhot)n bish- 
"een iftki il-chiyata 'ala toblha u 

inti ma cliiyatteesh hada mleeh 
iftkeeh w^imshi 'ala heez do'orri 

so that it may serve once more, 

as it is quite new. 

Hand me these shirts please; I 

wish to look them over. 

The wrist-band of this shirt needs 

attention. See what you can 

do with it. 

The gusset is torn; the tear can 

soon be made good. 

Sabha please hand me the strong 

white thread. No, not that one, 

it is too thick. 

The thread on this spool is thinner. 

The hem of this table-cloth is 

frayed out, will you please hem 

it on the machine, as it is old 

and I do not wish to spend 

much time over it. 

Darn the hole in this napkin and 

try to make the design again. 

Insert a piece into that blind, 

the hole is too big to darn. 

Are all the other napkins in 

good condition? 
I have examined them all and see 
that they, as well as the table- 
cloths, handkerchiefs and pil- 
low-cases require no mending. 
Try to take out these spots, some 
are grease and others are fruit 


The fringes of this cover have 

been partly torn off; as they 

are ugly undo the whole seam 

and take them off. 

Youdidnotsew this right, cut it 

and follow a straight line. 

— 156 — 

kteer ista'raleelio'on rabtat ijrooh 

hadol il-manashif saroo irfk' kteer 
•an in yista'raaloo ba'd aktar mitl 
manashif, ^d'o^seehtf'on la shikaf, 
itneelitf'on chiti i'laka fl kobll 
wa^de w^ista'mleeliobnslianiyet 


limniin td'ochlsi min^ir-rati w^il- 
chiyataaoodi kobll ishi la matraho 

shoo 'ammalik ta mall ya sooltaiie'? 
'ammali atarriz mindeel mitl mana- 
deel ramallah 
meen 'allamik it-titreez? 
t'allamto fi_,l-madrase. ho'bnak 
hon fi sliwi min^illi^'milto 
hal-charj ma'mool mleeh u hoo 
min karasta mleeha kteer kteer 
ma'mb'ol hal-charj bi makkobk 

willa bi sdbnnara'? 
ma'mobl bi sobnnara 
btarfl tislitirli 'ala^s-sobnnara? 
na'ara achadt saat bi sho^orl^ii- 
ibre w^is*sobnnara 
raooshkadir alakisobnnartik, wain 
mal?tobta fi 'oolbet il-chashab 
hadeek ma' il-mkass w^il-ko"osht- 
ban w^ il-mitr w il-bikal 

These nightshirts are too much 

torn, use them for bandaging. 

These towels have become too 

thin to serve any longer as 

towels, cut tliem into pieces, 

hem tliera, sew a loop to each 

and use them as dusters. 

When you have finished the dar- 
ning and sewing, put everything 
into its place. 
What are you doing So~oltane? 
I am embroidering a Ramallah veil. 

Who taught you to embroider? 

I learned it at school. There we 

were also taught the making of 

lace. Here is some that I made. 

This lace is very well made, and 

it is of very fine material. 

Is this lace made with a shuttle 

or with a needle? 

It is made with the needle. 

Do you know how to crotchet? 

Yes, I had lessons in needlework 

and crotchet. 

I cannot find your crotchet-hook. 

Where do you keep it? 

It is in that wooden box with 

the scissors, thimble, measure 

and hooks and eyes. 

jo"()mal 'an^it-taks*. 
keef it'taks il-yom? 

Meteorological Phrases. 
How is the weather to-day? 

1* means also crochet-book aud-kuittiajj; needle. 





— 157 

is-sama mrime u ana bachaf inna 


is-sama safye ii bala ryoom ii had a 

yom 'al las-safar 

k&n it-taks "atil ij-jot)m'a^l-fatat 

il-lail bikooa ritib kteer ba'd 

inhar mdayik min ish-shob w_,ir- 

btiftkir inno niyih yiji ra'diye? 

moosh 'ajeebe 

hiha btadat tir'id u ana hassait 

bi akammin noToktet shit a 

byiuzal mawazeeh kawiye fi hal- 


imbala; amma^r-ra'diyat ma bi- 

towlobsh kteer wala bikobuoo 

mdbchtreen 'adatan 

kabl ish-sl)ita btibrik daiman 

shobfma ajmalkosil-kadaliMiadak. 

hoo 'alame inn it-taks mleeli 

marrat biseer bard kteer fl^sh- 

shita ma' inn it-talj w^ij-jleed 

nadreen kteer u kawam bidobboo 

inkalab^il-hawa issa tili" or habb 


ida habbhawajbbnbbbirarbifi_sh- 

shita btikdar daiman tistansir 

is-shita nazil mitl_,il-mazareeb' 
habb hawa kawi shobf keef biliflf 
il-rabara. h^di zoba'a 

ish-sharkiye bi^s-saif 'adoo kbeer 
la. n-nabat 

The sky is clouded and I fear 

that it will rain. 

The sky is clear and cloudless, 

it is an excellent day for a journey. 

We had bad weather last week. 

The night is quite damp after a 

sultry day. 

Do you think that a thunder- 
storm is coming? 
I should not be surprised. 
There it is thundering already, 
and I have felt some rain drops. 
Have you heavy rains in this 


yes, but thunderstorms as a 

rule do not last long, nor are 

they severe. 

Before the rains it always lightens. 

Look, how beautiful that rain-bow 

is ! It is a sign of fair weather. 

It is sometimes quite cold in 

winter although snow and ice 

are very rare and they melt 


The wind has changed, there is 

a north wind blowing now. 

When a south-west wind blows 

in winter you may always expect 


The rain is pouring in streams. 

A strong wind has risen, see how 

it whirls up the dust. This is 

a whirlwind. 

The east wind, in summer, is a 

gieat enemy of vegetation. 

1* for ^>cry 

2* lit: plur. of niizrdb gutter of roof. 

— 158 — 

laish hee haik? 

hee hamye kteer u bittowwil amrar 
akammin yora hee bitsabbibhatta 
tinshaf owrak ish-shajar w_^ib- 
tdbbrtf'ok il-hasheesh w^il-'obshb 
il-barad darr ashjar il-bobrdkaii 

hlida owwal sha'a' lash-shams fl 
hal arbaV iyam il-acheere 
ibtadat tftim 

rabat ish-shams ii nihna lazim 

nista'jil la kiddam 

shoofkeef sha'a' ish-shams low wan 

il-ryoom bi ko^oll il-alwan il- 

hobmr w^il-kirmiziye 

tiir il-hlal u hi owwal najra 

ij-jow fl^sh-shark haik safi hatta 
inn^il-kamar w^in-njoom bibinoo 
'ala boo'd maddet eed 
Vomrak shoo ft tareek it-tabbaue 
haik safl mitl ma hee il-yom? 
in-nada kawi kteer ilbis balto 

il-badr tali' u 'an kareeb bibaddid 


il-fajr biyan fl^sh-shark w^in- 

nhar ij-jdeed byibtidi 'an kareeb 

shot)f! in-njoom "ammal yid'afoo 
'am titla' ish-shams 

owwal sha'a'atha tareen 'ala roos 
hadoleek ij-jbal rad 

in-nashaftowwal hadiis-sanakteer 

ir-rtoobe sabbabat hadeek ish- 

shatawiye haseede mleeha 
rakabt najm aboo danab illi biyan 

Why is it so? 

It is very liot and lasts often 

several days; it causes the leaves 

of the trees to wither and 

burns the grass and herbs. 

The hail has done great damage 

to the orange-trees. 

This is the first ray of sunshine 

during the last four days. 

It is beginning to grow dark. 

The sun has already set and we 

must hasten on. 

See, how the rays of the setting 

sun have coloured the clouds 

with all shades of red and purple. 

Tlie new moon has appeared and 

there is the first star! 

The atmosphere in the east is so 

clear that moon and stars seem 

to be within reach of one's hand. 

Did you ever see the Milky way 

so clear as it is to-night? 

The dew is very heavy, put on 

an overcoat. 

The full moon is rising, it will 
disperse the darkness. 
The dawn is visible in the east, 
the new day will soon break. 
Look! the stars are paling, the 
sun is rising. 
His first rays are coming over 
j^onder mountain tops. 
The drought in this year was 
very prolonged. 
The damp of last winter has 

caused a good crop. 
Did you watch the comet which 

— 159 — 

kabl akaminin shahr fi^s-sama? 

la ma rakabtish wala shooft ksoof 

ish-shams wala^l-kamar 

byikdar il-wahad ishoof shikaf 

injoomHakreebau ktfbll laile 

fi mooddet is-saif b3'ikdar il-wahid 

amrar kteere irakib is-sarab* 

appeared in the sky some raoaths 


No, I did not, nor did I see the 

eclipse of the sun or of the moon. 

One can see shooting-stars almost 

every night. 

During the summer you may have 

often an opportunity to see a 


Salutations, Compliments, 

Thanks, Regrets, Requests, 

Excuses, Congratulations, etc. 

]-chair or sabah il- Good morning^ {lit: May He 
meet you with goodness in the 
Answer : May He make your mor- 
ning happy. 
Good day (lit : May your f. sing. 
day be happy). 
Answer'. God protect you. 
Good bye {lit: With your leave). 
Answer: In peace. 
Good evening {lit: May H"e let 
your evening be happy). 
Answer: May He make your even- 
ing happy. 
Good night {lit: May your night 
be happy). 
Answer: May your night be happy 
and blessed. 

salamat, mjamalat, sho^okr, 

t'issif, taiab, i'tidar, tahane 

u rair ashya 

sabbhak* bi_ 

chair or nharak sa'eed 

yis'id sabahak or nharak sa'eed 
imb^rak or yis'id has-sabah 
nharik sa'eed or allah ma ik 

all ah yihfaskoom 

ma' is-salame 
masseek® bi^l-chair 

yisid masak 

laitak sa'eede 

lailtak sa'eede mbarake! 

1* lit: star piece-s. 2* instead of ^ 


3* The literal translation is 

given, generally, of the first of each group only, for the rest the student is refer- 
red to the vocabulary. 4* for habbahak 5* The suffix must be adapted to 
the person or persons addressed. 6* for imasseek 

— 160 - 

When passing some one on the road: 


marhabtain or alf marhaba 
il-'awafe^ or ya'teek^il-'afye 

allah i'afeek w^ichalleek or 
allah i afeek 
sahl.i badano 

badano isallmo 

Welcome! {lit: a spreading- out 
i. e. to you - be at ease). 
Afiswer : A double spreading out! 
Health ! May He give you health ! 
Ansiver: May God give you health 
and let you i. e. live. 
May his body be well^l 
Answer: May he keep his^ body 


Greetings to a Visitor. 
When so?ne one knocks at the door: 

tfaddaP or na'am 
ahlau u sahlan or alilan u sahlan 
u alf marhaba or ya meet ahla 
u sahla or ahla ahla ahla! 
fi 1-mitahbil 

Please come in. Help yourself. 

Heartily welcome {lit: You have 

met of your parentage and 

come upon a smooth path)*. 

Answer : The ahla and sahla wish 

be fulfilled in him who 

wishes it. 

To an honoured person one adds to this greeting : 

ahlan hallat 'alaina^l-barake Welcome! blessinghas come upon us. 
To an infrequent guest is said after the salutation: 
shoo jara hatta sharraftna? What has happened that you 

have honoured us? 
ma mnistarneesh 'an il-fadl ya Answer : We cannot do without 

seedi your favour, sir. 

mooshtakeeu ya afandi We have a longing [for you] 

u nilma bi^l-akta^^ Answer: And we in the augmen- 

min zaman ma zoortnash or ma For a long time you have not 
sharraftnash visited or honoured, us. 

1* for il-'a 

2* This salutation is used only to workman, and always in the 3rd person. 
3* The Arabic word is used in many senses such as "please" accompanied by 
gesture. 4* /. e. you are 'not a burden to us. 5* Form of address to the 
educated. 6* i. e. have a greater longing. 


— 161 — 

tfaddal istreeh Please rest yourself. 

meen shafak istarah Answer : He who sees you has 

When offering Refreshments. 
Asking for something: 

kallif chatrak shdorbet mai Please (lit: let it cost your plea- 

sure) a drink of water \ 
hadir or hadir 'ala rasi ii 'aini Answer: I am ready or Ready, 
or ala rasi u 'aini upon my head and my eye. 

Bringing the water one says: 

tfaddal! — mamnoon Please! Answer: Thanks. 

After one has drunk those present utter the tvish : 

haniyan! To your welfare. 

allah ilianneekoom w ichallee- Answer: May God give you well 

kolDm . being and let you {i. e. live). 
The drinking one says: 

sirrkotim or bi^sirrkoom or mahall To your health (Hi: Your sacra- 

'amir ment, or, in your sacrament, 
or a built house^). 
Those present say in ansiver to his wish : 

sahiitain or yihnalak^ Double health or May it give you 

After having drunk coffee one says : 
daime Always*. 

Answer of the host or a member of his family : 

allah ideeni hayatak May God let your life continue. 

Phrases of Assent. 
kot)lli 'ala hsabak At your service lit: My entirety 

upon your account, 
taht amrak Under your command, 

"ala rasi u "aini Upon my head and my eye. 

tikram Be honoured, 

bahibb akaddim lak cliidame I love to do a service for you. 

1* One must never make a request until seated, especially when the request 
is a personal one when, if possible, it must be postponed until the end of the 
visit. 2* /. e. May your house be inhabited by yourself. 3* for yihna lak. 
4* <■. e. May you always have coffee under the same joyful conditions as now. 
If coffee is offered in a house of mourning one says: allah yirhamo mai/ God 
show mercy to him /'. e. the deceased. 

A Manual of Palestluean Arabic. 15 

— 162 — 

mill shanak On account of you. 

koormalak For your honour. 

min shan chatrak For the sake of your will. 

mamnoon ; kattir* chairak; Much obliged. May He increase 

your possessions. 

mamnoon kteer; Msht; mamnoon Very much obliged; You have 

hibtfak la achir daraje lived: Much obliged to the last 

degree [for] your kindness, 
allah ikafeek "anni . May God recompense you in my 

ana kteer mit'assif 'ala kalami I regret much my hard words. 

miskee)! ma a'tal bachto! poor one, how bad is his luck J 

ya haram! forbidden thing! 

Requests and Excuses, 
batrajjak t.Vmal ma'o hal-ma'roof I beg you do him this favour, 
bihyatak^o/'bi'aidakorbisliarafak! By your life or by your morality 
bihj'at^ ooladak il-ralyeen 'alailv by your honour o>- by the life of 

your children who are dear to you. 
dachlak or dacheelak or dacheel I implore you. I implore your 

'ardak morality. 

Jfhen wishing to excuse oneself or wishing to go: 
dastoor. — tfaddal Permission. Answer : Please, 

bi^l-idn. — idnak ma'ak With permission. Ansiver: Your 

permission is with you. 

Congratulations and Good Wishes. 
When taking leave: 

ma mninsasli ma'roofak abadau We shall never forget your kind- 
allah JkObn nia'ak; allah ibarkak God be with you. God bless you. 

inshallah btitwaffak If God will may you succeed. 
Wish after shaving, hair cutting or bathing: 
na'eeman May it do you good. 

1* for ikattir. §* for bi liiya(tak). 

— 191 

buttercup liannoon atjfar 
Cabbage malfoof 
cactus sabr 
calyx kd()mm ez-zihre ; 

kdbnl) ez-ziihra 
camomile baboonij; krai'a 
caper kabar 
cardamou hail 
carob cbarroob 
carrot, yellow jazar 
carrot, white lift 
cn=;tor-oil plaut charwa' 
(11 t-miut hasheesh el-ko'ott; 
catch-fly mdb?§aig;ko^ttain 
cauliflower karnabeet; 

zahr; kanabeet 
cedar arz 
celeiy kirlis 
celery, wild kol3rfo~bn 
cherry karaz 
chestnut kastana 
chicory hindbe 
chickpea ho"ommo"b§ 
chervil bakdoonis 
chrysanthemum lowwander 
(.innamou kirfe 
cistus jibra; koXtmmaile 
citron trolinj: ko~bbbad 
clematis ma^a; shabatbat 
clover barseem 
cocoauut joz hindi 
coffee-tree bo"onn 
colchicum wada'a 
colocynth hausal 
colrabi kro'onb 
convolvulus shdbbrol^k ; 

tiujan el-kadi 
cor libb esh-shajara 
coriander ko'bzbara 
corn kamh 

corolla taj 11 ikleel ez- 
cress jarjeer 
cress, water rashad 
crocus za'faran; ko'brko'om 
cucumber chiar 
cucumber, Arabic fakkoos 
cucumber, squirting fakkoos 
cumin kammoon 
cyclamen gaboonit er-ra'i; 
karuain el-razal 

cypress saroo 
Daisy o"okho~bwan 
dandelion -ilk 
darnel zawan 
date-tree tamr; nacble 
date, fresh balahi 
date, dried 'ajwe 
doom tree dom 
dura ddbra 
Ear of corn siibal 
earthnut fo~bsdka lb 
egg' plant baitinjan 
elder bailasan 
eryngo ko~brs'anne 
eucalyptus shajare§-50omr 
euphoi bia hilbe 
Fennel shomar; basbasi 
fig teen 

fig, early daifoor 
fig wort hasheesh^ esh- 
filbert bdbndo'bk 
fir ti'ee kraish 
flax kittan 5a 
flower zhoor 
fruit tamar 
Oarlic toom 
geranium wild ibrit er- 
ra.i or el-'ajocz 
germander kamaudra;ji'de 
gilliflower mantoor 
ginger ziinjabeel 
gladiolus dalboot 
globe-thistle =akkoob 
golden rod tiyoon 
grape ko'otf 'inab; -ankood 
^rape, cluster of nnab 
grape, unripe ho"osro"om 
grass hasheesh; ^o'bshb 
grass, feather halfa 
grass, scutch enjeel 
greengage barkook 
Hawthorn boot; za'rdbr 
hemlock showkaran 
hemp klnnab 
henna henna 
herb cho"bdar; hasheesh 
hoUyhock chifmiye 
honey- wort lis;in el'-'o^ogfoor 
honey-suckle zahr el-'asal 
horeliound ikraiha 
horse-tail kat' wa§l, mish- 
hound's tongue lisan el-kalb 

husk l^ishr; 

hyacinth o"b]kinto"os; no' min 

hyssop zofa 
Indigo neel 
ivy habab el-mas;ikeen 
Jessamine yAsmeen 
juniper lizzfib; 'ar-ar 
Knotweed Ijo'oddab 
Larkspur mihmaz 
laurel rar 

lavender lawanda ; chzam 
leaf warak 
leek toom; ko"orrAt 
lemon, sour lemoon hamid 
lemon, sweet lemoon liiloo 
lentil 'adas 
lettuce chass 
lichen bahak el-hajar 
licorice root irk es-soos 
lily zambak 169X 
lupine to"ormo~bs 
Mahogany tree shajar 

maidenhair sak el-aswad 
maize do'bra §afra 
mallow cholibbaize; cho'bt- 
mallow, Jews mloochiye 
mandarin yoosoof afendi 
mandrake yabrooh; tooflVih 
maple do'bbb; kaikab 
mai-joram za'tar 
medlar za'^roor 
melon, sugar batteechasfar 
melon, water batteech 
mimosa littain; salamon 
mignonette isleeh; baleeha 
farue; aboo irwais; -arnoos 

mint ua-na 
mulberry toot 
mullein shajarat ed-dibk; 

mushroom fdotr; 'o'oshb 

mustard chardal; chirdaile 
myosotis adan el-far 
myrtle himblas; ;is 
Narcissus rdbnjdos; bzak 

nettletree ko'orrais; banat 

instead of 

192 — 

nightshade dnah it-ta'lab 
baudorat el-htye 
nut joz 

nutmeg joz et-teeb 
Oak balloot 
oak, evergrreen sindyan 
oats shoofan ; ho1)rtman; 

oleander difla 
olive fruit zaitoone 

poplar hor 
poppy chashchash 
potato batata 
pulse katani 
pumpkin kar'; koosa 
pumpkin round yakteen 
purslane bakle; farfaJtieen 
(Quince safarjal 
Radish fijl 
raisin zbeeb 





white scented 






jo'orn el-bizr 


nachl c 


zahr et-taloot 

papyrus kooJan; babeer 



parsuip jazar abyad 

pea bazilla 

pea, Indian mash 

peach choch; ddbrrak 

pear uj a § 

pepper plant flaitie 

pepper tree shajarat el-filfil 

petal warakit ez-zahra 

pimpernel marjane 

pine kraish; §u6bar 

pine cone karaz 

pink kro~bnfo"ol 

pistachio fo'bsto'ok 

pistil makan el-bizr min 

plauetree do^olb 
plantain lisan et-ta4ab 
plum swaida 
pod karn 

pollen ro'bbar ez-zahr 
pomegranate ro'bmmau 

stem sak 

stramonium harsh; joz 
ma til 
strawberry toot franji 
strawberry-tree kaikab 
sugar-cane kagab ma^s 
sumach so'omma^ 
sunflower -ain-shams 
sycomore jo^ommaiz 
Tamarisk tarf; tamar 
tares zawan abyad 
teasel shalamSn 
tendril 'arnoos; shammoot 
terebinth bootm 
thistle biillan; shok; natsh 
thistle, star mo'orrair 
thorn shok 
thorn-bush natsh 
thyme za'tar el-hameer; 
za'tar jabale; so'ohaif 
tobacco tdbtobn; hasankaif 
tomato bandora 
tree shajar 

truffle kam'; bint er-ra'd 
trunk, tree sak 
tulip haunoon razal; 

twig rot)Sin; jidi 
Valerian hasheeshet el- 

vetch kirsanne; mash; 

vine dalye 
violet banafsaj 
Wallflower chairi agfar 
walnut joz 
wheat kamh 
willow §iaf§af 
squill, small purple bdbi;ijail Yarrow kaisoon; hazanbal 

el-ljiye zahr el-kindeel 

St. John's wort dmoo' el- yew sharbeen 

bsain Ziziphas uebk 

stamen ro"om:in el-anhar do. spina Christi sidr 

olive tree shajarat ez-zaitoon ranunculus hodan; go'offair; 

onion bafial kaff es-sabc 

orache shajarat el-biyadeen; reed kagab 
rice ro~bzz 
root sho'orsh 
rose warde 

rosemary 'abtaran; ikleel 
ej-jabal; hasso'blban 
rose of Jericho kaffel-'adra 
rue harnal; zadabiye 
Saffron za'faran 
safflower 'dbgfo'br 
sage maryamiye 
salsify shirsh esh-shoofan 
saltwort jo'omeele 
sap zoom 
sedge sa'adi 
service-tree machlees 
sesame simsim 
scyal acacia sidr 
smilax Ijashishetel-batool 
snapdragon to'omm es- 
Solomon's seal chatim 

speed-well sheeh 
spinach sabanich 
spurge ho'oUaib el-boom 
squill, large zeez; bo^ogisail 



— 1 93 — 

Al)ai ';ib;"iyt; lb 
ibandou tarak 
al)ase oneself t\v;"ida- 
■ibbreviate iclita^ar 
ibbreviation iclitis;ir 
abdicate ista-fa 
ibdication isti'-fa 
ibdomeu batn; karsli 
ibhor kazz, ihtakr 
iibhorreiice ilitik;ir 
ability imk^iii 
abject Achir d-iiaje 
able, be 71R. 114 ' kidir 
aboard adv. 'al-markab 
abode maliall il-ikame 
abominable dani 
abomination rajas: karah 
aboitioQ tarh 
.Inuind malishe,mhasli.s}iak 
ilioiit takreebau 
;ibont to 'raih 199 
;ibout wliat? 'an aish 24 
above adv., prop, aktar min 
alireast adv. ddorri 
abroad chHrij 
ilirogate riyar 
abrogation taryeer 
abruptly lialan 
abscess ddbmmal c 
absence raibe, ryab 
absent, be vab 126,-> 
absent minded sarih,tayish 
absolute b^il-ko'l^Uiye 
;ibsolve v. hall 
absorb mas;;, nashsh 
absorption nashsh;, 
abstain mana' 
abstinence imtina' 
abundance katra 
abuse v. ihtakar 
abyss ka' 
accelerate ista'jal 
accept, please tfaddal 142. 1 
accept s. kibil 114 when 
banded tUi'iwal 143.3 
acceptable makbool 
acceptance ko'obool 
access do'ochool 
accessible mdiDrnkin il- 

ho~o§ool 'alaih 
accident 'arid; hadi 'atil 
accidental bi^^^-^itfe 
accommodate o.s.kiyafuafso 
accompany rafak 139. 1 

accomplice midnib ma- 
accomplish kiimmal 
accord adan [jib] 

accordance with, in bi mow- 
according- to biua'an 'ala 
accordingly lihTida 
account n. hisab r 
account of, on bisabab 
accountant mhasibji 162 
accredit sadak 
accumulate jama, 
accumulation jam" (5a 
accusation shkawe r 
accuse shaka 127 ishtaka 148 
accused n. il-mashki 'alaih 
accustom s. o. to 'owwad -ala 
accustom o.s. to t'ow- 
wad 'ala 137. 1 
ache v. wajja'; allam 
ache u. waja= 5a alam 5a 
acid h;imid 169 axeed 
acknowledge i-taraf 
acknowledgement i'tiraf r 
acquaint 'arraf "ala 
acquaintance ma'rfe 169 
acquiesce sadak 'ala, kibil 
acquiescence ko'bbool r 
acquire kisib 114 hassal 
acquit barra 
acquittal tabriye 
act V. 'imil, fa'al 
act tactfully sas 126. 1, 
act deceitfully ihtal 147 
act n. 'amal 4a 
action kiteet il-'amal 
action reaches climaxl27. 2 
active 'amil 
activity ^amal 4a 
actual hakeekatau 
adapt 0. s. t'owwad 'ala 
add jama' 
add to zad 126. 2 
addicted to miyal la 
addition jam' 6b 
address v. kallam 136 
address (letter ) 'inwau r 
address (speech) chitab r 
adhere tmassak hi 
adherent za'eem 8 
adjoining dakik 
adjourn t'ajjal 
adj ure hallaf 
administer twakkal 

administration wikale r 
admirable -ajeeb 
admiration -ajeebe 12 
admire t-ajjab 
admit sallam hi 
admit (enter) dachal 135.1 
admonish vvabbach 
admonish (preachj wa-as 122 
admonition towbeech r 
adopt tbanna 
adoption tbiniii 162 
adoration ikram r 
adore akram 
adulterate zowwaf, rashsh 
advance (go forward) 

tkaddam 142. 1 
advance (money) v. sallaf 
advantage manfa'a r 170, 
ifade r 
advantageous nafi'; molifeed 
adversity deeka r 
advertisement i'lan r 
advertise aMan 
advice n. mashoora r; 

naseeha r 
advise shar, nasah 
advocate mhami r 
adze kaddoom 12. 172 
affair amr 6a -amal 4a; 
maslaha 170 
affectionate lateef kteer 
afflict mabli 

affliction bala, baliye.lO 
afford kadir -ala 
afraid chayif 
after ba'd 76 
afternoon ba-d es-soljhr 
afterwards ba'dain 
again marra tanye 
against (opposed) didd 78 
against (direction) lajih- 
het; nahoo 
age 'dbmr 4a 
aged mchatyir 
agent so'omsar 
agha ara 166. .5 
agree upon ittahad 145. 2 
agree with wafak 
agreeable makbool 
agreeable, find istahla 153 
agreement ittifak 
agreement, keep hafas 


A ]tlanual of Falestinean Arabic. 


— 194 — 

agreement, make t'ahad 

143. 1' 
agriculture zira'a 
aid v. sa'ad 
aid n. msa'ade 
aim V. t'ayaa 
aim n. marma 169 raye r 
air hawa pi. ah wive 
airless bala hawa 
alas! ya wail 89. 3 
alight V. hatt 'ala 
alike mitl 

alive, become hiyi 131 
alkali kali 
aU kobil 34 
all, in bij-jobrnmle 
allege kal; idda'a 
alleviate 136.3 
alliance ralialafe 
allow adan 
allowance idu 
allude lammah 
allure rarr 116,2 
almanac takweem r, ro"bz- 
Almighty the il-kadeer 
almost takreeban 
alone wahd80;la hal + suff 
along 'ala tool 
alphabet alef ba; hroof il- 
already nahoo 
also kaman 
altar madbah 169 
alteration taryeer 
although ma' inu 
alum shabbe 
always daiman 
amass jamma' 
ambassador safeer 3 
amber k:irib 

ambition hd^^bb ish-shihra 
amble v. rah wan 
amble n. rah wan 
ambush makman 169, 

kameen r 
American amerikani 161 
amiss 'itib 
amnesty 'afoo 
among bain 
amputate kata' 
amulet hjab La. hirz 6a 
'ooze r tahweeta r 
amusement kaif, lahoo 
amusing, m'anis, anees 

ancestor jidd 6a 
anchor marsa 10a 
ancient 'ateek, kadeem 
and u, wa 
angel malak 174X 
anger kahr 
angle zawiye 
angry, be zi'il, ridib 114 
angry za'lan, radban 176.2 
animal hiwtm 166.4 
animate, hi 
ankle kahil 

anklet chrrolchal 171 hob- 
announce a'lan IV F 
annoy kahar, ras 
annoyance kahr; r;"iis 
annual kobll sane, sanawi 
anoint masah 
another rair 35 
answer jawab 139.4 
answer n. jawab 5. R2 

radd. 6a 
answering radid 165.1 
ant-hill wikr en-naml 
anvil siddan pi. sadadeen 
anxious mo"bsh mirtah 
anxious be idtarab 145; 
any shee, ishi, hiyallah 36 
any more shee ba'd 
apart mafrook 
apologise i'tadar 
apology 'idr 6a 
apostatise tarak deeno 
apostle rasool pi. rdbso-ol 
apothecary farmashi 162 
apparition soohoor 
appeal do'o'a, istid'a 
appear sahar 113.3 inshaf 
appearance shofe 
appetite kabliye 191b 
applaud istahsan 
apply (ask) sa'al 'an 
apply ista'mal 
appoint 'lyan 137 
appointed be t'iyan 
appointment ta'yeen r. f. 
appreciate kaddarish-shee 
approach v. iktarab 145.1 
(min or la) 
approve istaswab 
apron wazra 
Arabic 'arabi 161 R 

Arabs 'arab 
arbiter hakam 
arbitrament ho^okm el- 

arbitrary bala nasariye 
arch v.'^akad 113.1.2 
arch n. 'akd 

archangel rayis el-malaike 
archbishop rayis il-asakfe 
or il-matarne 
archdeacon rayis shamamse 
arched ma'kood 
architect mhandis 167 
archway rwak r. f. 
ardent riyoor 
argue tnasar 
argument mnasara 
aritlimetic hisab 
ark fo"blk 

arm v. sallah 136. 1 
aim n. eed, dra' 
armful 'ibt 
arm-pit bat 6b.N 
arms slab 
army jaish 6a 
around hawala 
arouse fiyak, nabbah 
arak -arak 
anange rattab 136 
arrangement tarteeb 
array v. saff 116.2 
arrest habas 113.2 
arrival wo'b.'>ool r. f. 
arrive wi§il 121 
arrogance killit il-haya 
arrogant kaleel il-haya 
arrow nashshab r.f. 
arsenal to"bbbchana r, ta- 

rasana r 
arsenic zirneech, too'm 
art fann 6a 
artery sharyan 171 
arihritis waja' al-mafagil 
artifice radr 
artisan jiani' 9 
artillery toobajiye 
as mitl 78 
as fast as 127.2 
as if ka'in 
as often as kooU ma 
as soon as halan 
ascend tili' 'ala 
ascending tali' 165.2 
Ascension day chamees 

ascertain akkad 

— 195 — 

ashamed, make chajjal 
ashamed misthi 
ashes ramad, sakan 
ashore tili' 'al-barr 
ash-tray aianfada 170 
aside .ala janb 
ask sa'al 117 
ask counsel istashar 152 
ask (demand) talab 118. 5 
ask for dismissal ista Ja 153 
ask, forgiveness istarfar l50 
ask, permission ista'danloO 
asleep, fall ni'is 
asperity hidde 
asperse sabb, bahdal 
aspersion bahdale r; ma- 
sabbe r 
aspire sa'a 
assemble jama' 
assembly jam'iye 191b 
assertion iddi^a 
assign s. o. istachas^ 151 
assist sa'ad 139.1 
assistance msa'ade r; m'oone 
associate shreek 8 
assume (office) istalam 
. assure yakkan I36.4akkadli 
assured, be t'akkad 
assuredly min ko~bll bidd 
astonished mit'^ajjib; mad- 
at fi; bi; Mnd; "ala 
at any rate halt kan; 'ala 
ko'oll hal 
at Urst owwalan i9 
at last acheeran 49 
at once 'al-harik 76 
at the beginning bi^l-owwal 
at the end bi^l-acheer 
at the most 'al kteer 78 
atheist kafir 
atmosphere jovv 
atone tab 

attach 0. s dachal ma"'; 
ittafak ma'; indamm la 
attain hassal 
attainment tah§eel 
attempt v. jarrab 134 
attend hidir 
attead to (sick) 'alaj 
attend to dabbar 
attendance zyara r 
attention intibah r. f 
attentive dayir bal 176 R 
attest shihid 
attract injadab 

attractive jadib 
auction mazad r. f. 
auctioneer biya' bi_^l- 
audible masmoo' 
auger (tool) barreeme r 
aunt (maternal) chale r 
aunt (paternal) "amme r 
author m'allif r 
authority hibe r 
autumn chareef 
avail 0. s. ista'mal 
avarice tama' 
avaricious tamma' r 
avenge intakam 
average m'addal 176. 1 
avoid tjannab 
await istansar 
awake fak 126. 2 
awful fadee" 
awl machraz 169 
axe balta r 
axis mihwar 
axle dinjil 
Back gahr 6a 
bacon dihu chanzeer 
backing (carriage) tarjee' 
backward warrani 175 R2 
bad (: evil) radi, mo'bsh 
tiyib 176 R 
badly off, pretend to be 
bag kees 4a 

bag, travelling shanta r 
bail kfale r 
bake chabaz 113.2.5 
baker chabbaz r 
bakery mahall il-cho"obz, 
bald iikra' 
bale balla, hizme r 
ball ko'ojje 2 tabe r 
ball of yarn kabkoobe r 
bandage n rabta r 
bandage v rabat 
banishment manfa 
banister darabzeen 167. 2 
bank (river etc.) shati 13.3 
bank mak'ad 169a 
banker bankaji 174 N 
bankrupt iflas 
banner bairak 169, boon- 
daira 174 
baptise 'ammad 136. 1 
baptism 'o"ommad 
barbarous barbari 162 
barber hallak r 

barefoot hafl 176. 1 
bargain v. *awam, fasal 
bark v. 'owwa 
barn machzan 169, tab- 
ban 171 RN 
barracks kishla 2 
barrel barmeel 173 
barrel (rifle) kasabet il-ba- 
barren mo'bsh mobch§ib or 
barter sawam 139. 4 
basalt hajar bo^orkan 
based upon mabne 'ala 
bashful sahib haya 
basin hod 4a 
basket rush ko'olfe 4b 
basket wicker salle 4b 
basket, large kafeer, sail 
bath hammam 167.2 
battalion o'orta 
battle mowka'a r 
bayonet sanka r 
bay (sea) chaleej 
be cf. 71- 216 if. 
beach shafi 
bead charaz 
beak minkar 171 
beam jisr 7 

bear young wilid 122. 136.4 
bear (carry) hamal 
beard dakn 5b, lahye 2 
beardless one ajroode 174 
beast (wild) wahsh 6b 
beat darab, chabatll3. 5 
beat into pieces dakdakl54 
beatitude tooba r 
beautiful sareef 178 
because 'ala yadd; hatta; 
ta; bi hait; min hait 
because of 'ala shan 
beckon wama 129 
become §ar 126. 2; 219 
become again 'ad 126* 1 
bed, go to idtaja' 145 
bed frash la 
bed-cover lihaf la 
bedaub jarmak, wassach 
bed-room odit in-nom 
bed-sheet sharshaf 169 
bed-8tead tacht 7 
Beduin badawi 161 
beef lalim bakar 
beer beera 

before (in front) ko'oddam 
before (in time) kabl 

— 196 

beg (ask^i trajja 
beg sLahad • 
beget wallad 
beggar shahhad r 
begin bada 127. 3. 1-48; 
begin to do sar 219. 2 
beginning bdaye 
bebead kati' ras 
behind war a 62 
behold! shoof; laik 
being n. dat pi. dawat 
beleaguerer mhasir r 
believe aman 139.2 
believe s. o. saddak 
belief eeman 
bell jaras nh 
bellow minfach 17 1 
belly batn 6a 
belong to chass 
below taht 
belt zoonuar 171 
bend lawa 130 liana 
benefit u. ni^me 2 
bent, be inlawa 144. 4 
berry habbe 6 
beside janb 

besides rair 35: ""ada ''an 
besiege hasar 139. 1 
best-man shibeen 12 
bestow bachshash; ahda 
bet V. sharat 139. 1 rahan 
139. 1 
bet n shart 6a 
betray chau 
betroth chatab 113. 5 
betrothal chdbtbe r 
betrothed be chatib 176. 1 
better o. s. istalaJi 145. 1 
between bain 67 
beware of cf. § 16 
Bey baik 166. 5 
beyond ''alahadak ish-shati 
Bible torah 
bier na^sh 
big kbeer 90a. 156 
big, make o.s. tkabbar 142. 1 
bile marara 
bill hsab 166.4 
billow raime 
bind rabat 
bird tair 6a 
birth wilade 
bishop molttrau 171, dos- 
ko^bf 174N 
bitch kiilbe 
bite V. 'add 116. 2 
bite n. 'adda r 

bitter mo~orr 
bivouac 'ardiye 
black aswad 180. 1 
black, become iswadd 146 
blacking booya 
blacksmith haddad r 
bladder kees il-mai 
blade nasle 4b 
blame v. lam 126. 1 
blame n. lom 
blanket hir;im soof 
blaspheme jaddaf 
blasphemy tajdeef 
bleat ma"a 
bleed v. fasad 113. 5 
blemish 'ar 
bless barak 
bltssing barake r 
blind a'ma 

blinded, be in'ama 144.4 
blindness 'ama 
bliss sa'^ade 

blister n faklo'ble 174 
block Vo^ormiye pi. kaiami 
blood damm 
blossom v. nowvvar 137.1 
blossom zahra 6b 
blouse bloose 
blow v. nafach 113 5 
blow (wind) u nafch 
blue V. nival 
blue azrak ISO. 1 
blue, become izrakk 149 
blunt mlallam 
board, wood chashabe,16h 
board, feed ta'am; akl 
boast V. iftachar, fashshar 
boast n. iftichar, tafsheer 
boaster imfashshir 
boat flooka 12 
boatman bahri 167. 4R 
bobbin mkabb razl 
bodice §idriye 
body (animate) jism 6a, 
badan 5b 
body (inanimate) jism, 

hajm 6a 
boil V. rili 

boil (milk) fowwar 137 
boil over tar 126. 1 
boil (disease) habbe, tdbl"^ 
boiled maslook 
bold jasoor 
bolt n sakkata 
bondage 'o'bboodiye r 
bone "asm 4a 
bone-setter jabbar. mjabbir 

book kitab la 
bookbinder mjallid 165. 3 
bookdealer ko~btol)bi 162 
book shelf raff ko'^ito'bb 
boot boot 

boot, led Beduiu zarbocl 
bootblack boyaji 167. 2.R 
booty raneeme 
bore V. kadah 113.3 
boring tkeel id-damm 

183 Rl 
borrow ist'ar 152 
bosom ''o'bbb 
both tuainhdbm 
bottle kanneene r 
bottom ka'^ 6a 
bough far' 6a 
bunuciary hadd 6a 
bounds ihdood 
bouquet tishkeele r 
bow V. hana, Iowa 
bow kos pi. kwas 
bowels am'a, masareen 
bowl sahn 6a 
box V)olbe r sandook 172 
buy walad 5a sabi 11 
braces hammalat 
bracelet iswar 17 IR 
bracelet, glass dimlij 169 
brain dimar 6b \ 
bran nchale 
brandish lolah, hazz 
bta,sier kanoon 14 
brass nhas agfar 
brave sho^oja" 
bray .shanhak 154 
breach fisch, shookk 
bread clio'obz, cho'bbez 
bread, loaf of irreef 11 
breadth "ard 6a 
break kasar 113.1 
break out (disease) fasha 

break into pieces kassar 134 
breakable kabil it-takseer; 
breakfast v. fatar 113.4 
breakfast n. ffoor r 
breast (fem.j bizz 4a 
breast sidr 6a 
breath nafas 5a 
breathe tnaffas 
breechloader baroodefa.shak 
bieeze naseem 
bribe v. bartal 154 
bribe n. barteel 173 

— 197 — 

brick toob c 
bricklayer banna toob 
bride 'arbos 12 
brideg-room 'arees 11 
bridge jisr 6a 
bridle v. lajam 136. 1 
bridle n. lijam r. f. 
brigade liwa pi. alwiye 
bright lami", mishrik 
bring jab 124 
bring back radd 116b 
bring in fowwat 137 
bring out talla' 136. 1 
bristle n. sha'r chinzeer 
broad 'areecj 91a. 181. 1 
broil shawa 

broken be, into pieces tkas- 
sar 142. 1 
broker so'bmsar 174N 
brook sakye 13. 3 
broom mo'oko'onse 170 
brother ach pi* ichwe 
brought, be injab 144. 1 
brown asmar 180. 1 
brush V. farsha 
brush n. fdbrshai 
brush, paint foorshait dh;in 
brutish fass 
bubble fo'okkai'it mai 
bucket daloo 
buckle bo'okle 2 
bud V. tala_k, atlak IV F 
bugle nafeer 3, boori 
build banii 127 
builder banna pi. banayeen 
building 'amar 166. 4 binii 
bullet go'olle r 
bunch dolimme r 
bundle hizmer, bdbkje r 
burden himl 5a 
burial dafn r. f. 
burn ishta'al; shabak 
burnt, be ihtarak 
burst infajar, infazar 
bury dafan 113. 1 
bush darl 5a 
business shdorl 5a 
business matter da'we 170 
busy mashrool 
but vvalakin, la kin 
butcher lahham r 
butter zibde 
butter, cooked semen 
button zirr 4a 
buttonliole'irwel59. 168.2 
buttress sande r, ro^bkbe 2 
buy ishtara 

buyer 'ameSl 3 
buzz wazz 
by u, wa 62 
Cabin oda fi_l-markab 
cackle v. l^aka 
cage kafag 5a 
cage in b; cunning inbal 
'ala 144 2 
cake ka'k 

calamity mageebe 12 
calculate hasab 113.2 
calendar mafbooch 172, 
takweeml67.2ro"ozname r 
Caliph chaleefe 3R 
call V. ( name) samm 
call V. nadah 113. 3 na- 
da 140 da'a 145. 2 
call at miyal 137 
call n. nida 
caller out mnadi 167. 1 
callous kasi 
callow jalbobt 
calm hadi, sakit 
calumny washi; namm c 
camp mahatt r. f, 
can 71R, 219. 2R 
canal kanai r 
candle sham'a r 
candlestick sham'adan r.f. 
cane 'aga pi. 'dbgi 
cannon madfa' 169 
canvas kmash kloo' 
cap tfirbobsh 172 
capital rasmal 167. 2 
captain ko'bbtan 171 
captivity sabi 
caravan kifl 5a 
card, playing shadde 
cardboard kartoon 
care for i'tana 
care, take! deer bal+suff. 
care of, take ijtahad 
care, I don't care cf. 85 
carehil hidir 
careful, be intabah 
careless bidoon hadar; 

careless, how! ma ahmal 
carpenter, najjar 165.3 
carpet sijjad r. f. 
carpet, smooth bjat la 
carriage 'arabiye; karroosa 
carrier 'attal 165. 3 
carrionjeefe2.N2ftee?!e 12 
carry hamal 113. 2 
cartridge fashak c 
case, in any 'ala ko'bll hal 

cast V. (metal) sakab 
cast-iron badeed sakb 
castle kagr 6a 
castrate chaga 
casual bi_^§-§idfe 
catalogue birnamij,katal6g 
cataract (eye) mai zarka 
catarrh rashh 
catch V. misik 115 safar 

_ 145. 1 
catechism katakeesmdos 
Catholicism katlake 
caught, be inmasak 144 
cause n. sabab 5b 
cause V. sabbab 
cautious hidir 
cave mrara lb. 12 
cease battal 136, 1 
ceiling sath 6a 
celebrate 'iyad 137. 1 
celebrated 'ageem 178 

cellar machzan ardi 
cement shimeento 
censer mabchara 
centre markaz 169 
century jeel 5a 
ceremony rasm, taks 6a 
certainly akeed 
certificate shhade 
cesspool kadoora 
chaff tibn 

chain jauzeer 173sinslel70 
chair ko'orsi 169 
chalk tabashoor 
chance, by bi,^?-§idfe 
chancel mlmbar 169 
change n. tabdeel 167. 2 
change v. riyar 137. 1; 
change (coins) ?rafe 
changed be (money) ingA- 
raf 144 
channel sakye 13. 3 
chaplain kaplan 
chapter fa§l 6a a§bab r. f . 
character tab' 
charcoal fahm 
charge s. o. v. wa§sa fi 
charge (cost) si'r 5a 
charity ho'onoo 
chaste 'afeef 181 
chastise addab 136. 2 
chastity 'Iffe 
chat hadeet c 
cheap rcheet! 181 
cheat V. rashsh 
cheek chadd 6a 

A Manual of Palestioeaa Aiabic. 


— 198 — 

cheekbone fakk 6a 
cheerful farhan 
cheese jibn c 
chemise kamee? 11 
chess lob'bet ish-shatranj 
chest (box) sandook 172 
chest ?idr 6a 
chew 'alak 113.2 lak 126.1 
chief kayid pi. koowad 
child walad 4a 
chills bardiye 163 
chimney madchane 170 
chin fakk 6a daku 6a 
china (adj.) kishani 161R 
China it'-§een 
chisel sinsal 171 
choir jok 4a 
choke sadd 
cholera hawa agfar 
choose intachab 145.1 

nakka 187.2 
choose for o.s. ichtar 147; 
chop kassar; katta" 
Christ il-maseeh 
Christian nobgrani; maseehi 
Christianity id-dyane^l- 
Christmas 'eed il-meelad 
church kaneese 12 
cigarette sigara r 
cinnamon kirfe 
circle daire 13.2 
circumference ko"obr;hajm; 
cistern beer 4a 
cite proverb darab; matal 
cited, be intalab 
city mdeene lb 
civil (polite) adeeb 
claim talab r.f. daVe r 
clan hamoole 12 
clap the hands zakkaf 
class-room gaff 6a 
claw n. machlab 169 
class, Ey daraje 
clay trab, teen 
clean v. naddaf 136.1 
clean vessels jala 127.1 
clean ndeef 181 
cleaned, be t'azzal 
cleanliness nadafe 
clear v. (weather) gihi 137.2 
clear away 'azzal 136,1 
clench his teeth kazkaz 

'ala snano 
cleft shi^l^ 6a 

clergy kahnoot 
clever shatir 179 
cleverness shatara r 
cliff haffet gachr 
climate manach 
climb t'amshat 
cloak kabboot 
clock sa'a kbeere 
clod talla'a r rabade r 
close (a- hole) sadd 116a 
closet chazane 
cloth kmash; jo'och; 
clothes haje 13.2 
cloud n. raira 6a 
clouded mriyim 
clove krdbnfo'ol c 
club dabboos 172 
clumsy dibM 
coachman "arbaji 164 
coarse chishin 176.1 
coastland sahil 13.1 
coat, Europ. §ako pi. ^akat 
coat sitre 2 

coat, long ko'bmbaz 171. 
coat, rain mshamma' 
cocksure ralees ed-danab 
coffee kahwe 164 
coffee-cup finjan 171 
coffee-cup holder sarf 6a 
coffee house keeper kah- 
waji 164 
coffin taboot 14 
cohabit daja' 
coherent mitwa§il 
coin °Imle c nkood c 
cold (adj.) bardan 176.2 
cold n. bard 163 
colic marg 
collar kabbe 
collect jama"^ 
college kdblliye r.f. 
colonel meer alai 
colour Ion 5a 
coloured mlowwan 
column 'amood 14 
comb V. mashshat 136.1 
comb n. moosht 5b 
come aja 128 
come in sight wafad 122 
come near to akbal 'ala 
come upon (befall) hall 
comet najm aboo danab 
comfort V. "azza 137.2 
coming n. jai 29 
coming, the 120. 200 

command n. wagiye 10 

amr 13.1 

commander amir;ko"oman- 

commerce tijara 
commission komisyon 
committee jam*iye 
common (low) dani 
common (to several) mdosh- 
tarak 'o'omoomi 
communion(eccles.) il-'asha 
community jeere 
companion rafeek 3; 'a- 

sheer 3 
company jama'a; shirke 
comparatively bi^,n-nisbe 
compare kabal 
comparison mkabale 
compass ibret il-marnateea 
compassion shafaka 
compassionate hanoon 176.1 
compelled, be iltazam 

145.1 injabar 
compensate 'owwad 187 
competent kadir; kabil 
complain of tshakka min 
142 5; ishtaka min 
complementv. tjamal 143.1 
complete ily) chaLis;kamil 
complete v. challag, 136.1 

completion tacblee?; tak- 
compose allaf 136 2 
compress n. rabta r 
compute hasab 
concave mka"ar; ajwaf 
conceal chafa; chabba 
concealment chifa 
concede tsahal 
conceit kambara; kdbbriya 
conceited mitkabbir 
conceive (woman) hibil 
conceive (animal) 'ashshar 
conceive t§owwar 
concern v. 'ana 
concerning chdogoo? 
concession irade; ro'bchsa ■. 
conciliate msalim ^ 

conciliation msalame; 

conclude istadall 151; 

concrete tabit 
condemn hakam 'ala 
condescend v. tuazal 

— 199 — 

condition shart 6a 
coi;dition (state) Ijal 5a 
condole "azza 
conduct u. slook 
confess ^arr ll6a 
confession i'tiraf 
confidence tika 
confirm akkad 136.2 
confiim (eccles.j tabbat 
congeal magal [144.4 

confused, become in'ama 
congratulate bArak; hanua 
137. 2 

congratulation tahinye pi. 

conjecture chamman; gaun 
conjure da'^a 
connect rabat 
conquer istafar 145.1 ihtall 
conqueror safir; yalib 
conscience clameer 12 
consciousness, return to 

wa'a 129 
consecrate tkarras 
consent n. ko'obool 
consequence nateeje 
consider tfakkar; t'ammal 
consider s.o. ijasab; ra'a 
consideration mo'bra'ah c 
console o.s. t'azza 
constitution dastoor 
consul ljo1)ngo"ol 169 
contain wisi^ 123; sa' 126.2 
hawa 130R 
content radi 
continent barr 
continually dayim 
continue wagal 139.3 
continue always dam 126.1 
contract, make a f^ahad 143. 1 
contractor mit'ahhid 
contradict dadad 
contrary adj. adv. (Jidd 
convenience r;'iha 
convent dair 6a 
conversation mahka 
converse itsalla 142. 5 
conviction ta'keed 
convince o.s. t'akkadl42.2 
cook V. tabach 114. 5 
cook n. 'ashshi 166. 3 
cool V. barrad 136. 1 
copper nhas 
coppersmith nab^ias 
copy V. nasach 
copy n. nooscha 

coral moorjan 167. 2 
cord chaitma?{ieep, ^eetan 
cord for keffiye 'ikal r. f. 
cork falleen c 
corkscrew barreeme 
corn (foot) mo~bsmarl71 
cornelian 'akeek 
corner Jj:o~brne pi. Ijo'bran 
correspond katab 
correspondent mkatib 
correct v. gallali 
corridor zakook 
corrupt fasid 
corset mshadd 
cost V. kallaf 
cost n. tamau 
costly tameln, rali 
cotton kdbtu 183 
cottou adj. kdbtni 183 
couch diwan 
cough V. sa'al 113. 5 kaliti 
cough n. sa'le 
council majlis 169 
counsel mashwara; ma- 
shoora r 
counsel, take tshawar 

143. 3 shawar 139. 4 
counsellor mo~bsheer r 
count 'add 116a 
counterfit v. tkallad 
countless takleed, tazweef 
country balad 4a 
courage, he has ilo kalb64 
courage a. shaja'a 
courageous jiri' 
course majra pi. majari 
court tosh 11 
court of law mahkame 170 
courtesy ihtisham 
cover v. rata 
cover n. rata 137. 2 5. 112 
covet tama' fi 
coward fatas, chowweef 
crack shikk 6a 
cradle sreer 12 
cramp tashanno'oj r. f. 
crash dajje 
crawl dabb 116. 2 
crazy habeel 177 
cream kashta 
crease tanye r 
create chalak 
created machlool^ 176.1 
creation chaleeka 
creator chalil: 
credible, be tgadda^ 142.1 

credit "ala^l-bisab 
credulous bi^addi^ ko'bll 
creed kanoon il-eeman 
creep zahaf 
crier za"ak 
crier from minaret m'ad- 

din; mnadi 
crime jo'brm 7 
crime commit a ajram IVF 
criminal jani 13.3 mo'ojrim 
cripple mkarsah 
crochet v. ishtaral 'as- 

crochet-hook so'ounara 
crooked malwi 
crop hageede 
cross V. (field) marr, marak 

min 113.5 
cross §aleeb 11 
cross, be inkahar 
crossing n. 'abbara; mam- 
cruw V. Vaka 
crowbar no'ochl 7 
crowd V. zaham 145 b 
crowd zabme 
crown n. taj 11 
crown of head ko'ommet 
crows-feet ja'dat 
crucify ^alab 
cruel kasi 

crusader galeebi 167.1 
crush haras 
crust kishre 
crutch "o'okkaze 
cry V. gah 126. 2 
cry V. (jackal) ""awa 130 
cry n. grach; ?yah 
cry of joy zalfoota 
crystal balloor 
cuff ko"omm 5b 
cultivate (plants) ta^'am 
culture adab 183R2 
cunning makkar 176.1 
cup, glass kadab 4a kas 6a 
cupidity tama' 
cupola kobbbe 
curdle ma§al; 
cure V. 'alaj; shafa 
cured, let o.s. be t'alaj 143.1 
curious (inquisitive) daUoo" 
cure jaddoole 
curly aj'ad 

curry (horse) hass 116.1 
curse V. sabb 

— 200 — 

curse V. (God) la'an 
curse n. la'ne; masabbe 
curtaiu bobrdai 
custody, give in owda' 141.2 
custom 'ade 13. 2 
custom ( duty) koomro'ok 164 
customer ziboon 12 
custom-house offic. ko~bm- 
rdokji 164 
cut V. ka5§ 116b 
cut D. kassa 
cut off kata' 
cutlet kasfalaita 
cymbal snooj c 
Dagger chanjar 169 
daily ko'oll yom; yomi 175 
dam so'odd 56 
damage v. darr 
damage n. darar 
damp ritib 176. 1; mablool 
dampness irtoobe 
dance v. rakas 
dance n. raks c 
dandruff kisbr 
danger chatar 5 
dangerous mo"bchtir 
dare v. istarja 153 
dark ,itm 9da 176. 1 
dark, become 'attam 136. 1 
darkness sdblme, -itme 
darling liabeeb 
darn rata 127. 1 
darning n. rati 
date V. arracl) 136. 2 torach 
date n. tareech 14X 
daub tartash 
daughter bint pi. banat 
daughter-in-law kinne 
dawn f aj r 
day of 12 hrs. nhar 
day of 24 hrs. yom 175 
day, all tool eu-nhar 
day, previous kablhabiyom 
deacon shammas 174N 
dead n. miyet r 
dead, pretend to be itma- 
wat; istamwat 149 
deaf atrash 180. 2 
dealer biya- 
dear, become rili 127. 2 
dear (beloved) tiabeeb 90b 
dear (opp. cheap) rali 90a 
death mot 

deathlike mitl^il-miyet 
debase o.s. watfa keemto 

debt dain 6a 
decayed m'affin 176.1 
deceit makr; 
deceive rashsh 116.2; 
deceiver rashshash; mak- 
deception rishsh; makr; 
decide. a question anha 
decision ho'bkm 5a 
declare good istachwa§ 
decline to imtana 
decorate ziyan 
decorate o.s. jachch 116-2 
decrease kallal 
decree amr 13; irade 
dedication ihtifal 
deduct (monev) cha§am 

1 J 3. 1.2; kata' 
deed 'amal 5a 
deep rameek 90a 181.1 

'ameek 176.1 
defeated, be inralab 
defeated marloob 
defend dafa- 139.1 
deference i'tibar 
deficit I'ichchir 
defraud chada'; rashsh 
degrade watta; 
degree daraje 
Deity iloohiye 
delay v. achchar 
delay n. 'Ska 
delayed, be t-owwakl42.4 
delegate nayib pi. no'bwah 
delicate na'im 176.1 
delicious ladeed 
delight ladde 
deliver harrar 
demand v. talab 
demand n. matloob 201 
demon jinn c jinniye f. 
denial uakran 
denounce ishtakal48shaka 
deny nakar 113.1 
depart safar 
depend upon t'allak; 

ittakal 'ala 
depose "azal 113.2 
depth ro'bmk 
deride istahza 
derision iztihza 
derwish darweesh 173 
descend nizil 115 
describe wajaf 

desert barriye 
deserve istahal !50; ista- 
ha^k 151 
design ^a-de 13.1 
desirable marroob 
desire shahwe 
desirous shahwani 175R2 
desist imtana' 
desolate charai) 
despair, be in yi'is 128 
despisable makrooh 
despise hakar 
destination maksood 
destitute, be matrook 
destroy charrab 
detailed mfassal 
detain 'owwak 
detect uabbash 
determine atbat 
detest ihtakar 
dethrone a^ikat 'an il-arsh 
deviate tad 126. 2 
devil shitan 17 IR 
devote o.s. to tfana 143.4 
devotion (pers.) badl ed- 
dat 'an 
devotion (relig.) dbade, 
devour iftaras 
devout zahid 
dew nada 
dial wajh es-sa^a 
diamond almaz 
diaphragm hajib bain is- 
sidr w,^il-batn 
diarrhoea insihal; ishai 
dictate uakkal 
dictionary kamoos 14 
die mat 126. 1 twaffa 142.3 
differ v. (in form) farak 
differ V. (in opinion) ichtalaf 
difference cf. § 86 fark, 

differently *ala fair tar eek 
difficult si'ib 90a: tkeel 
difficult, be si'ib 114' 1 
difficulty s'obbe 
diffuse intashar, fah 
dig hafar 113. 2 
dug be inbahash 144 
digging hafir 104 
digest V. hadam 
dignity hibe, wakar.'asamc 
diligent shatir '90b- 179 
diligent, be tshatar 
dim mo~b-tim 
diminish jjallal 

— 201 — 

dimple on hand taloole 
dimple in face shame 
dine tradda 142. 5 
dinner rada 137. 2 
diuingroom odit il-akl 
dip gabb 116.2 
dip s. 0. ratt-as 136. 1 
direction jibha 
directly halan, -al-harik 
dirhem dirham 169 
dirt wasach 
dirtv wisich 
dirty, be itwassach 
disappear ichtafa 
disappointed marshoosh li, 

raltan ti 
disapprove lam, istakbah 
disaster mseebe 
discard zawa 
discernment tamyeez 
discharge (.accused) 'afa^an, 
discharge (gun) atlak, 

discipline adab, marba 
discontented moTish radi 
discontinue kaff 116. 2 battal 
discount iskat 
discover ichtara^ r.f. 
discreet labeeb 
discrimination fark 7 
discuss iddakar 145 
disease marad 
disembark nizil -al-barr 
disembowel fazar 
disfavour n. sacbat 
disfigure triyar 
disgusted, be in'af 144. 2 
disgusting mo"bstakrah, 

disheartened ya'san 
dish, straw tabak 4a 
dishonest mo~bsh mo~bsta- 
dishonesty ^adam il-isti- 
dishonour v. bahdal, 'ah 
126. 2 
dishonour n. 'adam ish- 
sharaf; 'ar 
dislike barad 
disliked, make o. s. barrad fi 
dislocate fakash 
dislocation faksh 
dismiss -azal 
disobedient 'aneed 

disobedience ko^bbr er-ras; 
disobey *anad 
disorder 'ajka 
disordered, be tcharDat 
disperse farra^ 
displease ras 126,2 ^ahar 
disposition (arrangement) 
tarteeb 173; tanseem r.f. 
disposition (tendency) mail 
dispute V. hawar 
dispute together tbahat 
dispute n. mihawara 
disquiet mdosh hadi 176E 
disregard v. ahmal 
disrespect n. ihtikar r.f. 
dissatisfied mitdammir 
dissolve hallal; dowwab 
distance masafe r 
distend (eyes) bahla^ 
distinct wadih 
distill karrar; kattar 
distinguish v. imtjlz 
distress v. ramm; kaddar 
distress n. ramm; kadar 
distribute farrak -ala 
distribution tafi-eek r.f. 
district nahye 1.3.3 jihha 
distrust v. shakk fi 
disturb az=aj 

disturbance 'ajka; haiza'a; 
iz'aj r.f. 
ditch chandak 169 
dive ratas fi 113.5 
diverge from mal 'an 

diverted, be sihi 12 ( 2 
divest V. itjarrad 
divide kasam 60.113.1 
dividend, arit. maksoom 
division arit. kisme 
divine v. hazar 
divinity o'oloohiye 
division (part) kism 
divisor maksoom 'alaih 
divorce v. tallak 
divorce n. talak 
dizziness docha r 
dizzv dowchan 176.2 
do " cf. 81 

do. sawa 140: sowwa 
don't ever! ma 'o'omrak 
do without istarua 'an 
do with, what have you to 
shoo ilak mahka ma- 

doctrine tadeem 173 
dogma a^eede 10 
doing 'ammal; 'am 198 
dome kdbbbe 2; 'alj;d 6a 
done, become istawa 148R 
donkey driver tiammar 

donkey saddle jlale 162 
rahl c 
ditto, maker of jlalati 162 
door bab 5a 
door keeper bowwab r 
doorlock zarfeel 173ralr.f. 
dose (med.) kammiye r 
double V. da«af 
double takain, mijwis.56 
doubt V. shakk 116.1 
doubt shikk 6a 
doubt, no imbala; bidooa 

doubtful mshakkak feeh 
dough "ajeen 
down taht 
downward la ta^it 
dowry mahr 6a 
dozen dazzeene 
drag sal.iab 113.3 jarr 116.2 
drain v. safta 
drain n. majra 
drainpipe masoora 
draught (air) masraf 
draw jarr 116 2 
draw near kirib 
drawer jarrar 
drawers kalsoon 167.2 
drawers, women ilbas 
drawing-room odit es- 

so'okna; odit id-dyoof 
drawn, be injarr 144.3 
drawn away, be inzah 144 2 
dreadful mo'ocheef 
dream v. hilim 114.2 
dream u. hilm 5a 
drench v ballal 
drenched, be tballal 142. 1 
dress V. libis 115 
dress s. o. labbas 136. 1 
dress n. libs 6a fo'ostan; 
171. tob 
dresser (kitchen) sdbfrit 

dressing-table so'ofrit il- 

drink give to saka 127. 1 
drip nakkat 

drive v. (beast) sak 126. 1 
drive (carriage) -arbaj 


— 202 — 

drive n. mishwar 171 

drive away hawa 140 tchiyab 

driveu away, be intaradl44 

driver 'arbaji 

drop V. (into eyes) katar 

drop n no'ojkta 2 

dropsy istiska 

drought naahaf 

drowsy, be sihi 127. 2 

drowu s. 0. rarrak 

drowned, be ririk 

drug n.dawa 5aK2 'ilaj r. f. 

druggist farmashi 167. 2R 

drum V. tabbal 

drunk sakran 181. 2 

drunk, make askar 141. 1 

drunken man sakrau r 

drunkard sikkeer r 

Druze ddorzi 6bN 

dry, become yibis 123. 114. 1 

dry, make yabbas 136. 4 

dry adj. nashif 

due (fitting) layi^ 

due (owe) madyoou 

dues, take one's basab 

dumb achras 180. 2 

dung zibl 

durable, be dayan 189. 4 

duration mdbdde 

dust V. rabbar 136. I 

dust n. rabara 

dust of thresliing floor moos 

duster shreeta 1 2 shartoota r 

dusty, make rabbar 

dutywajibr.f.fard 7,hakk6a 

duty, customs kdbmrook 169 

dwarf n. ko'oz', to'oz' 11 

dwell sakan 

dwelling-place mahall 

167.2, maskin 169 

dye V. sabar 113. 5 low- 
wan 137 

dye lek'^her dabar 
dyer sabbar 
dyer of leather dabbar 
dysentery zintar 

Each kdbll 

each other ba'd 32 

eager mo'oshtak 

ear dain 15 

earring halak c 

early bakkeer 

earn isthalj:^ 

earn wages taila' 

earth trab 

earth (globe) ar(J 157kdbra 

earthenware aniyet fo"och- 
char pi. awiini 
earthquake zalzale 170 
ease (repose) raha 
east shark 
Easter 'eed il-kbeer 
eastern sharki 
eastward lajihhetish-shar^ 
easy sihil, hiyin, chafeef 
eat akal 

eat with s. o. akal 139. 2 
eatable, be byittakal 
ebb jazr 

ebony chashab abno~ns 
ecclesiastical kahnooti 
echo sada 
eclipse ksoof c 
economical mwaffir 
economize waffar 136. 4 
edge taraf 5a 
editor mharrir 
educate rabba 137. 2 had- 

dab 136.2 
educated mhaddab 
education adab 
education, receive trabba 
efface maha 
effected matboo' 
egg baid c 
egg, lay bad 126.2 
either ... or amma in . . . 
elbow koo' pi. kwa' 
elect intachab 147. 1 
electricity kahraba, kah- 
elegant sareef 
element 'angar 169 
elevate 'alia, 
elevation irtifa' r. f. 
ell dra' pi. adro'o' 
eloquent faseet 
emancipate tachallag min 
embark nizilfi^l-markab 
embarrassed, become tiar 
embezzle ichtalas 
embitter marmar 154 
embrace v. 'anak 139. 1 
embrace each other t'aual^ 
143. 1 
embrace n. m'anaka 
embroider tarraz 136. 1 
embroidered mtarraz 
embroidery tatreez c 
Emir ameer 3 

emetic mdbljiyi' 
emphasis rakk 
employ sharral 
employ (use) ista^mal 
employment sho'brl; man- 
zale; wa^eefe 
emptiness farar 
empty v. fad^a 137,2 
empty, become firir 114.1 
empty adj. farir 176. 1 
emulate sabak 
enable kaddar 
enamel n. meena 
encamp chiyyam 
encampment m'askar 
encircle howwat 137 
encircling mo^bheet 
enclose hawat 
enclosure tahweet r.f. 
encourage jarra' 
end V. challag; anha 
end nhdye [jahdo 

endeavour V. ijtahad; badal 
endeavour n. ijtihad 
endure ihtamal 
enemy 'adoo pi. a'da 
energetic sarbast 
energy hazm; sarbastiye 
engaged, become chatab"' 
Englishman inkleezi 161 
engineer mhandiz r 
engraving naksh 7 
enjoy o.s. tana^'am; inbasat 
enjoy a thing inbasat 
enlarge kabbar; wassa' 

enlist iktatab 
enmity adawe 
enough kfai 
enough (only) bass 
enrage ihiyaj [15( 

enquire after ista'lam 'an' 
enquiry istichbar'an 
enraged, be iftas 
enrich iftana 
enter dachal 113.5 fat 

entertain salla 137.1, charn 
entertain (guest) diyaf 137. 
entertainment, evening 

entirely bi^l-chali§, bi^l-j 
ko'olliye, yami 
entirely without yamm haU 
entirely ko~bll 175 
entrance dchool 

— 203 — 

entrapped, be wihil 122 

envelope mrallaf 167. 2 
garf 6a 

envious one hasid 9 

envy hasad 

epilepsy da' en-no~bkta 

epitaph tareech il-kabr 

epitomize ichtasar 145. 1 

equal mitl 

equals, it tsawi, 

equality msawah 

equally kadd-|-pers. pron. 

equator chatt il-istiwa 

eraser, rubber niimhai 

err rilit 

error ralat 5a 

escape, v. harab, sbarad 

escape n. hareebe 

escaped, have iuhazam 144 

escort hashye 

especially cho'osoosan 

essence dat 30 

essential do'croori 

establish assas 136. 2 

esteem i.tabar 

estimate v. kowwam 1-S7. 1 

et cetera ii rair ishi 86 
halo'bmma jarran 

eternal abadi, dayim 

eternity abadiye 
Eucharist il-'asha_r-rab- 
eunuch machsi 
European franji 161 
evade magya" 
evaporate itbachchar 
evening 'ashiye 10 masa 
event hadti 13. 1 
ever daiman; tamalli 
every ko'bll 34 
everlasting omdayim; 
evil sharreer 91; radi 90a 
evil n. so^olm 
exact masboot 176.1 
exact, be dakkak 136.3 
exactly bi^t-tamam 
examination fahs; imtihan 
examine imtahan 145.1: 
karrar; itfala- 'ala 145a 
example matal 5b 
example, for matalan 
excavate hahash -ala 
exceedingly kteer 95; la 
achir daraje 
excellent Fadil 176 3: 'ala 
dhsau tarz 176R 

except 'ada 'an 
exception istitna 
exert dabbar date 
excess fok il-'ade 
exchange v. badal hi; baddal 
exchanged be tbadal VII 
exclaim sarrah 
exclude istatna 
excuse i'tadar 145.1 
excuse n. 'dbdr 6a i'tidar 
exempt istatna 153 
exercise v. maras 
exercise n. dars 
exhausted halkan 
exile V. nafa 
exile n. nafi 
existence woojood 
existent mowjocd 
expect istansar 150; in- 
expectation intisar r.f. 
expel tarad 
expend saraf 
expenditure kilfe 2 mas- 
roof 172 

expensive rali 90b 
experience v. ichtabar 
experience n. chibra r 
experienced michtbir 
experienced man mjarrib 
experienced, become ich- 
tabar 145.1 

experiment 'amaliye 
explain fassar 
explode infajar 
extinguish tafa 127.1 
extinguished, be intafa 
extortion mass; 
extract juice v. imtass: 
exult ibtahaj 
exultation ibtihaj 
eye 'ain 15.157 
eyeball hadaket il-'ain 
eyed, become one- i-warrl49 
eyed, one- a'war 180.2 
eyebrow hajib 13.1 
eyeglass uagsara 
eyelash ramsh 6b 
eyelid jifn 5b 
eyesocket jooret il-'aiu 
eyewitness shahid 6b X 
Fable chdbrafiye 
face wijh 6a 

factory masna' 169: ma*- 
mal 169 

fade dibil 

fail chab 126.2 

failure chaibe 

faint V. rimi 

faint (hunger) mchowwir 

faith (relig.) iman r. f. 

faith ^rust) ittikal r.f. 

faithful ameen 176.1 & 178 

faithful n. moVmin 

fall V. wa^a' 136. 4 

fall n wik' 6a 

false mo'bsh mo~bstakeem 

falsehood "adam il-istikame 

falsify zowwar 137. 1 

fame ism, seet 

familiar ma'loof 

family 'aile 

famine joo' 

famous mashhoor 

fan mirwal?a 170 

fanatic n. adj. mit'asfib 

fancy 'ann 'ala 116 1 

fancied, he "ann 'ala balo 

far b'eed 181 1 

farewell, to bid wadda. 

farm n. mazra'a; hosh 

farmer fall ah 

farrier beetar 
farriery, practice bitar 154 
farsach farsach 169 
farther warrani 74 
fascinate ijtadab 
fashion mooda 2 
fast (quick) saree, ijil 
fast V. sam 126. 1 
fast n. som: siyam r.f. 
fast, be sabbak; kaddam 
fasten v. shadd 116.2. mak- 
fasting "ar-reek 176K 
fat adj. smeen 1"! 1 
fat shahm,dihn 
fate mseebe 

fate, ill raziye9X, mseebe 12 
father ah pi. abbahat 
fatherless yateem il-ab 
fatten samman: rabbab 
fault 'aib 6a 
faulty masboot 176. 1 
favour v. faddal 
favour n. ma'roof 167.2; fadl 
favourable mwSfiJj 
fawn V. dahlaz 
fawner mdabliz r 
fearv. chaf 126.3habl26.2 

— 204 — 

fear n. faza', chof 
fear to do ichtasha 148 
feast 'eed 5b 
feather reeslie c 
features takatee' il-wijh, 
February shbat 
fee keeme, 
feeble d'eef 
feebleness do'o'f 
feed 'alla^ 
feed 0- s. iktat 147 
feeder (bib) maryool 
feel (touch) lamas 
feel (perceive) hass 161.1 
fei'l compassion hizin 
felicitate biirak, hanna 
fellow tana 
felt lo"obbad 
felt-cap Idbbbade 
female adj. m'anuat 
female n. iuta 
fence n. tiisyeej 167. 2siyaj 
fence in siyaj 
ferment ichtamar 
fermentation iclitimar 
ferocious barri, wabsh 
fertile, be achsab 
fertile michsib 
fever schoone 
few, a ba'd 33 
fez tarboosh 
fie! ichs, 'ahh 
field liakl 6a 
fiery, become himi 127.2 
fight V. katal 139.1 harab 
fight with takatal 143 
fight n. kitill 
figure (form) timtJil 
figure too s. tsowwarl42. 4 
file V. bar ad 
file n. mabrad 169 
filial banawi 175R 1 
fill malla 136.1; 'abba 137.2 
fill 0. s. intala 148 
filled, be tmalhi 142.5 
filter V. karrar 
filth zbale 
filthy mzabbal 
find V. wajad 122; laka 
find n. ilkiye 
finder wajid: mlaki 
fine (opp. thick) rafee' 

finger i§ba' pi. a?abi' 

fore finger sabbabe 
middle f. wasta 
ring f. binsar 
little f. chingar 
finish chalas 113.5 
fire n. nar 157.11 
fire a gun atlak; kowwas 
fire, get on ishta'al 145.1 
fire, set on ahrak; wallac 
fire, take ihtarak; will' 
fire-tongs malkat 169 
fired, be inkawa 144.4 
firm t&bit; makin 
firm, become ishtadd 146 
firmament jalad 
first 46 

firstborn bikr 5a 
fisher giyad 
fishhook sinuara 
fishing, go t§iyad 142.4 
fist dab'a r 
fit V. wafak 

fit (a garment) jallas 136.1 
fit (proper) layik; muasib 
flabby rachoo 
flag bo'ondaira 174 
flame sha'loobe, lahabe 
flank janb, chasra 
flannel fanella 
flat n. (ground) sahl 6a 
flat (level) do'orri 
flatter mallak 136. 1 
flattery tamleek 
flavour n. dok 
flee harab 113.5 farr 116.2 
flesh lahm 
flexible Ijabil il-lawi 
flight (birds) tayaran 
flight put to tarad 
flight harab, hareebe 
flint goowan 
flood V. rarra^, towwaf 
flood tatweef, fayadan 
floor tabik 
floor, ground ardiye 
flour theen 
flourish azha 
flow V. jara 127. 1 
flow of tide madd 
flower zihre 6b 
flower-pot ko'owwar 14 
flowing (garment) wasi" 
flute, single ^o'bffaira 
flute, double mijwis, zo'bm- 
flutter rafraf 

fly tar 126.2 

foam rarwe 
fodder >-alaf 
fog dabib, ritaita 
fold V. tawa 130 
fold n. tanye, to wye 
folded matwi, matni 
folded, be intawa 144.4 
follow tibi' 
following illi 29 
following, the jdi 200 
folly habal 
fondness mawadde 
food ta'am 
foot ijr 159 rijl 15 
forbear ibtamal 
forbearance ihtimSl 
forbid harraj 
forbidden mamnoo« 
force V. ra§ab 
force n. rasb 
forced, be tiyas 137. 1 
forcibly bi_l-ra§b, ra§ban 
ford V. ^ata" 
forehead jibha 
foreign rareeb 
forelock rdbrra; nasye 
forenoon kabl is-so"ohr 
forfit 'araboon 
forge V. (metal) haddad 136.3 
forget nisi 127 
forgive samah 139 
forgiven, be inrafar 
fork shoke 
form V. kowwan 
form n. kalib 13.1 
forsake tarak 113.5 
forsaken matrook 
fortress kal'a 4b 
fortune (money only) mal 
forward! yallah! 
forward go t^addam 
foul (meat) mintin; 
(fruit etc.) mchammij 
(wood"* mtachtich 
found V. assas 136.2 
foundation asas 
founder mo"o'assis 
fountain beer; nofara 
fraction kasr 6a 
frame v. barwaz 
frame n. birwaz 171 
fraud makr; tazweer; 

free adj. hobrr 163 
free, be cbali; fddi 

— 205 — 

freedom hdbrriye 163 
free will irade 
freight kilfet it-tareek 
frequent adj. amrar kteere 
fresh taza 

Friday yom il-jo-om'a 61 
fried makli 
fried, be inkala 145.4 
friend sahib 4R 
friend, make ts4hab 143.1 
friendly lateef 178 
friendship sadaka 
ti'ight faza' 

frighten s. o. chowwaf 134 
fi'ightened, be tsarsab 
frog (horse's hoof) daban 
from min, 'an 62 
front ko'oddam 
frontier hadd 
frost mallah 
frown V. 'abbas 
frown D. ta=bees 
frugal mo'o'tadil 
fruit fakha 13.1.N 
fruitful mdbchsib 
fry V. kala 
frying-pan maklaye 
fuel wakeed 
fuel (made of dung) jali 
fugitive harib 
full malau, malyan 176.22 
fulfil tammam 
funeral dafne 
funeral service ju;'ize 12 
funnel mahkan 167.2 
fur farwe 

furious mithiyij, msharbit 
(of camel) 
fiu-nish jahhaz 
fui-nished (house) m'attat 
furniture atat 
furrow talm 
further v. sanad 
fuss V. jakjak 
futile battai 
futility batale 
future mo'ostakbel 
Gabhle n. ja'dane 
gain V. kisib 114.1 
gain n. maksab 169 
gaiu over istamal 152 
gaiter tmak r. f. 
gale zoba'a 

gaUed, be (beast) t'akwar, 
gallop V. tarad; chiyal 
gallop n. mtarada, chioole 

gallows mashnaka 170 
galoshes kalsheen 173 
game n. §aid 
game (play) lo'o'b 
garden bo"ostan;171jnaine 
garden round a house 

hakoora 14 
gardener boostanji 
gargle v. machmad 
garment tob 4 
garrison kashle 
gasp tnahhad 
gate bowwabe 
gather lamm 116 1 
gauze shambar 169 
gaze V. balilak 
gaze u. bahlaka 
gender jins 
genealogy nasab 5a 
generosity shahame 
generous shahm 
gentle 'akil 

genuine moosh marshoosh 
German almani 161 
get hag?al 
ghost chayal 
Ghost, Holy er-root el- 
gift 'atiye 9N 
gimlet barreeme 
gipsy noori pi. nowar 
girdle kamar, zdonnar 171 
girl bint pi. banat 
girth hzam 166.4 168.1a 
give 'ata 127.1 
glad mabsoot 
glance n. nasra; lafte 
glaring zahi 
glass kazaz 
glass, liquur kadah 
glaze V. lamma' 
glaze n. talmee* 
glory fachr, iftichar 
glove kiiff 6a 
glue rira 
glue-pot mirrai 
gnaw nakar 
go rah 

go about dar 126.1 
go before sabak 
go by mada 
go, let 0. s. thamall43.1 
go out charaj; tili' 114.1 
go up &down tmashsha 
goad nachaz 113.3 

goal marma; raye 
God allah 

god-father shbeen 12 
gold dahab 
goldsmith gayij- 
good lj^s3,n, tiyib 90a 156. 
"mleeh 181.1 
goodness lo^o^f 
goods chairat 
goods-train babor el-'afsh 
gospel injeel pi. anajeel 
gossip barbara; tartara 
gout no'bkro'bs; dail-mo"o- 
govern malak 
government dole 
governor waU 9 
grace ol)bbaha 
graceful aneek; k^^ayis 
gracious, be an'am 141.1 
grade daraje 
graft V. ta«am 
grain habbe 
grandfather jidd 5b 

„ mother jidde, sitt 

„ son hafeed 
grain falli 4b 
grant v. istajab 152 

an^am 'ala 
grape honey dibs 
grasp V. ^abad 
grating (fire) msabba' 
grateful shakoor 
grave kabr 6a 
grave-yard makbara 170 
graze rin 
grease v. ziyat 
great kbeer 90a 
great, consider istakbarl50 
greatness ko'obr 
greasy midhin 176.1 
greed tama' 
green achdar 180.1 
green, become ichdarrl49 
greet sallam 136.1 
greeting salam r. f, 
grey abrash 180.1 
grey (animal) zarlja 
grey haired shayib 
grief ramm 
grievance hamm; ramm 
grieve s. o. galam; ahzan 
grieved, be inramm 144.3; 
irtamm 146 
grind tahan 
grin kashshar 
groan v. 'anu 116.1 

A Manual of Palestioean Arabic, 


— 206 — 

grocer 'attar 165.3 
groom sayis; mkari 
groove karneesh 
ground, (reason) sabab 
grow nabat 
grudge hasad 
guard V. haras, hafas 
guard 0. s. ihtaraz 145.1 
guard n. kariikoon 167.1 
guess V. tiizir lli.2 
guess n. hizr 
guest daif 6a 
guest-house manzil 169; 
guide dalool 14 
guilt danb 
guilty midnib 
gum so'omr 
gun baroode 14 
gun, double-barreled jift 7 
gunpowder barood 
gutter kanai 
gutter of roof mizrab 171 
guttural halki 
Habit chisle 
hack bahash 
had, be wihil 122 
hair sba'r 163. 6b 
halawi halawe 162 
half no~b?5s 50 
hall ro'bwak 
halter mikwad 169 
hammer shakoosh 14 
hammer, sledge matraka 12 r 
hammer, stone breaker's 

hammock shabake 
hand-bag jo'osdau 171 
hand v. nawal 139.4 
hand eed 15 
handful kamshe, kabda 
handkerchief mahrame 170 
hang (a man) shanak 113.1 
hang up 'allak 113.2 
happen jadd 116.1 §ar219N 
happiness sa'ade 
happy sa'eed 178 mkiyif 
happy, make as^ad 141.1 
harbour meena 2 
hard ^asi 

hard, become jifi 127.2 
hard (unfeeling) jafi 
hard (solid) jamid 
harm v. darr 116.2 
harmonize sakab 
harness n. 'idde 

harvest v. hagad 113.5 
harvest olives jadd 116.1 
harvest n. haseede 
haste 'ajale 
hat bdornaita 174 
hatchet balta 
hatev. barad 113.5 
hatred bo'orda 
haughtiness ko'obriya 
have ma'; Mnd; la 68.215 
have been kan 126.1 
haze rootaita 
head n. ras 6a 
head, (leader) riyis 
headache waja' er-ras 
headcloth bashnooka; 

tarbee'a 174. 
headdress, maideu'sro'bk""a 
headdress for married wo- 
men shatwe 
headdress, priest's kalloose 
health 'afye; 'awafe 
heap n. kom 
heap up kowwam 137.1 
hear sama' 
hearing sami' 165.2 
heart kalb 6a 
heat V. wakad 122 daffa 
137.2 ?achchan 136.1 
heat n. shob; harr 
heated, become Ijimi 127.2 
heave tnaffas 
heaven sama 166.6 
heavenly samawi 175R.1 
heavy t^eel 90a 9a'b 

181.1 N 
heel ka'b 4a 
height 'il»5o 
heighten rafa' 
heir warit pi. wdbrata 
held, be inmasak 144.1 
hell jiihauuam 157 
help each other tsa'ad 143.1 
help s. s'thingkaddam 
hem V. tana 
hem n. tani 

henna, be dyed with than- 
na 142.1 
herd n. ra'iye 
here hon 

here, from min hon 
here is hi; hiya 21 
heresy hartaka 
heritage wirte 

hermit nasik 

hernia fitak 

hero jada"; batal 

hesitate traddad 

hesitation tro"oddo"od 

hiccough jara 

hidden, be indara 144.4 

hide V. chabba 137.2 chafa 

hide 0. s. tchabba 142.5 

high 'ali 90b 

high, become "ili 127.1 

highway so'bltane 

highwayman nashtari 

hill talle 4b 

hilt nisab 

hinder manas cawwak 

hindrance mani'; 'ayik. 

hint n. ishara 

hip chasr 

hire v. ista'jar 

hire n. ajar 

history tareech 

hit V. sab 126.2 

hither jai la hon 

hive n. kafeer; chaliye 

hoarse mabhooh 176.1 

hoe fas 6a 

hold sa' 126.2 hawal29R 

hole bachsh 6a chdbzk 6a 

hole in wall, to let out 

smoke talja r 
hollow adj. farir 176.1 
hollow out ka"ar; jowwar 
holiday fdbrga 2 
holy mkaddas 
holy n. kiddees 
home (native land) watan 
honest ameen; galih 
honesty amaue r 
honey 'asal 
honour v. sharraf 136.1 

iljtaram 145 1 
honour, (dignity) sharaf; 
honour, (rectitude) istikame 
honoured mdbhtaram 176.1 
hoof haflr 13.1 
hook V. shankal 
hook u. shankal 169 
hook and eye bikle 2 
hooked imbakkal 
hoop tolj: 
hope V. ammal 136.2 

t'ammal 142 2 intasar 
hope u. amal 5a 
hoped, it is to be in.shallah 
horizon o'oflj 5a 

— 207 — 

born lj;arn 6a 
htiiiible shanee' 
horror jafalan 
horse shoe hadwe 
hose narbeej; barbeej 173 
hospital mo~bstashfa 167.1 
host mdSjif 
hostile m'adi 
hot so'cchn 

hot (weather) shob 90b 
hotel lokanda 
hotel-keeper lokandaji 
hour sa'a 

hour, appointed wakt il- 
house dar 157. 4a. bait Ga 
housework sho-orl^^^il-bait 
how! ma 89.1 
how? keef 
how much? kaddaish 
however amma, walakin 
how many? akamm, kamm 
humanity insaniye 
humble, be tawada' 
humbled, be ittada' 145.8 
humility tawado"b' 
hump, camel's sanam.hadabe 
hunchback ahdab 180.2 
hunger v. ja' 
hunger n. joo' 
hungry jo'b-an 176.2 
hunt V. §ad 12b.2 i§tad 147 
hunter siyad 165.3 
hunting, go tgiyad 142.4 
hurl akla' 

hurry v. 'ajjal 136.1 ista'- 
jal 150 
hurry n. 'ajale 
hurt T. waja" 122 
hurt, cause owja' 141.2 
husband joz 5a 
hush! ist: hooss 
husk, take out of tfarfut 
hut chaime, kooch 
hymn tarteele 
I ana 8 
ice jleed 

ice-cream ddondo~brma 
idea rai 

idiot majnoon 172 
idle kaslan 
idleness kasal 
idol §anam 5a 
idolater watani 
if lamma, ida 208, low 209 
if not willa 
ignite waUa- 136.4 

ignited, be iltahab 14n.l 
ignorance jahiliye 
ignorant jahil 179 
ignorant, be jahal 111.3 
ill =iyan 176.2 
ill, become 'eyi 131 [143.1 
ill, pretend to be tmarad 
illegal mo~osh tanooni 
illness marad 5a 
illuminate now war 137.1 
illuminated, be indawa 
illude magya. 
image goora 
imagine t§owwar 
imbitter marmar 
imitate tkallad 
imitation takleed 167.2 
immaculate t.ihir 
immature (man) mo'bsh 

immadiately halan 
immerse rattas 
immigrant mhajir 
immigiate hajar 
immigration mhajara 
immoral safeeh; razeel 
immorality safaha; razale 
immortal abadi 
impart chabbar 
imperative (gram.) amr 
impertinent kaleel el- 

hkya 183E 1 
impiety ko'ofr 
implement ale 
implore trajja 142.5 
import V. jalab 
importation jalb c 
important mo'ohimm 
impossible mo'osh mdomkin 
imposter rashshash: chad- 
imprecate la'an; sabb 
impress v. attar 
impression ta'atto'br;infi''al 
imprison habas 
improve gaUah 
improvement ta§heeh 167.2 
impure 'ikir 
impurity 'akara 
in fee 65 

inaccurate mo'osh masboot 
inactive battal 
inadequate mo'bsh kati 
in as much bi ^adar 
incapable mo~^jsh mottdrik 
incarnation taja3Sol)d 

incense Idbban; bachchoor 
incessant dayim 
incisor nab 4a 
incite hiyaj 
incline miyal 
inclination chatir 13.1 
incoherent bidoon Mlaka 
income madchool 
incomparable ma iloosh 

inconsiderate bi doon nasa- 
inconvenient mitjib 
incoiTect marloot 
incorruptible rair fani 
increase v. zad 126.2 145b 
incredulous ma bitgaddak 
incur adnab; ajram 
incurable ma byishfa 
indebted (debt) madyoon 
indebted mamnoon 
indicate ashshar 
indifferent,be thamal 143.1 
indigo neele 
induce jabar 
industrious shatir 
industrious, be jadd 116.1 
inexcusable bidoon ^idr 
inexperienced rasheem 177 
inevitable ma bitrajja 
infancy to'ofooliye 
infant tifl 
infantry bayada 
infection 'adwa 
infer istadall 151 
infidel kafir 
infinite bala nihaye 
inflame thiyaj 
inflammation iltihab 
influence v. attar 
influence n. ta'teer 
inform chabbar 136.1; 
information chabar, i.lam 
ingratitude 'adam ish- 

inhabit sakan 
inhabitant sakin 9 
inherit wirit 122 
inheritance wirte 
inject hakan 
injure darr 116.2 
injured, be t'attal 
injustice so~blm 
ink hibr 

inkstand mahbara 1<1 
inlay labbas 

inmost 'atif 

innocence (of guilt) bara'a 
innocence (purity) tahara 
innocent bari 
innumerable rair ma'dood 

inoculate ta"^am 
inoffensive molDsh mo'odirr 
inquire into bahat 'ala 
inside n. maile^j-jo^bwauiye iris 
inside jo'owa ii'O" 

insinuate dass 116.1 
insist istamarr 151 
inspire laham 
inspired mo^olhara 
instance, for matalan 
instead of badal; badal 
instigate hiyaj 
instructed, be t'allam 142.1 
instrument ale; 'idde 2 
insufficient mobsb kafi 
insult V. ban 126.2 
insult n. ihane 
insurgent fodawiye 
integrity in?af, istij^jime 
intellect "akl 
intelligent faheem 
intend ka?ad 113,5 
intensity sbidde 
intention makgood 172 


intentionally bi^l-arade 
interest s. o. rarrab 
interested, be ririb 
interest (money) faide 13.2 

interfere twassat 
internal dacbili 
international -amm 
interpret tarjam 
interpreter to'orjo'bman 
interrupt takata' 
interruption mkata'a 
interview n. mo^o^abale 
intestine migran 171 
intimate tiameem 
intolerable mo'osh mintak 
intolerance ^adamil-ibtimal 
introduce "arraf 
introduction (to book) mkad- 

intrude tak^al 
intrust M'ada' 
invalid 'ajiz 
inundation tawafan 
invent icbtara' 145.1 ;waj ad 

— 208 — 

invention icbtira'' 167.2 
invest hatt 

invisible, become rab 126.2 
invisible adj. rayib 
invite 'azam 113,2 
invitation 'azeeme 12 
invoke nada, talab 
invoice fatoora 166.5 
inwards jdbwa 
kos il-kadah 
V. kawa 
ironed, bi- iukawa 
iron for laundry n. raikwai 
iron (metal) l.iadeed 
iron (adj.) hadeedi 183 
iron-mould ?ada 
irrational habeel 
irregular mo'osh kiyasi 
irrigate saka 

irritated, be hiyas 137.1 

island jazeere 12 

itch jarab 

ivory 'aj 

Jacket embroidered tak- 
geera 174 

jade (stone) yasbm 

jam tatle 

jar, large zeer 

jar, small jarra 

jar, still smaller 'asliye 

jar for serving water shar- 
be; breek 

jasper yashb 

jaundice reekan 

jaw fakk 6a 

jealous riyoor 

jealous, become rar 126.3 

jealousy reere 

jest V. mazah 

jest n. mazh 

Jesus yasoo' 

Jew yaboodi c 

jeweller jowbarji 

jewellery jobar 13.3N;c 

join wasal 

joiner najjar 

joint ilbam 

joint (body) mafsal 

joist 'afreete 

Jordan o'ordo'bn; sheree'a 

journal jo~brnal; jareede 

journey gafra 

journey-man fa'il 

joy farah 
joyful farhan 

judge V, tiakam 
judge n, ^a^i 9 N 

judgement ho'bkm 

jug jarra 

juice zoom 

jump rakad 

jump down natf 116.2 

junction wagl 

just "adil 90b 

justly bi^l-ha^k 

justifiable mbarrar 

justification tabreer 

justify bairar 

Ealendar takweem 

kasseedeipoem) kaseedel2 

keep (retain) abka 

keep (take care of) hafag 

kept well, be 4fa 140 

kerchief shal 

kernel bizre 

kerosene kaz 

kettle tanjara 

key miftah 171 

khan chan 166 4 
kick V. labat 113.5 

kick (horse) rafas 113.5 

kick up the heels barta- 154 

kick n, rafsa 

kidney kilwe 

kill mowwat 187,1 katal 

killing katil 104 

kind adj. -akil 176.3 

kind, of this "ala hash- 

kind (sort) jins 5b shikl 5a 
kind-hearted tiyib el-^alb 
183 R 1 
kindle dawa 130 sha"l 
kindling hatab 
kindness ma'roof 
kindred kareeb 
king malik 
kingdom mamlake 
kink tanye 

kiss V. kabbal 136.1 has 
kiss n. bose 
kitchen matbach 
knead "ajan 113.1,2 
knee rikbe 

knee-cap saboonet ir-rikbe 
kneel raka' 
knife sikkeen 173 
knitting pin so^onnara 
knob zirr 

knock V. kara' 113.3 dakl? 
knot 'dnkde 2 
knot, make a 'akad 113.1 

— 209 — 

knot in straw when cut 
kaswal c 
knotty m^ikkad 
know"'!!!!!! 114.2 drif 1U.2 
'arraf 13G.1 
knowledge Mlm 6a 
Labourer sharfeel pi. 

lace charj 7 

lack V. chas 12G.2 nakag 
lack u. kille 

lad sabi 11 

ladder so'oUam 157. 171R 

ladle mirrafe 170 

lake bahra 

lame a'raj 180.2 

lame of hand akta' 

lame, become i'rajj 149 

lameness 'araj 

lament uadab 

lamentation for dead ma%ide 

lamp kandeel 173 

lamp chimney bannoora 

lamp, clay sraj la 

lance v. batt 

lance n. lo'omh 4a 

land (country) blad 11 

land (opp. sea) barr 

landing tshitti 

lane zaroob 14 

language loora; lisan 

lantern fanoos 

lap V. lakla^ 154 

lap n. hdbdn 

larder bait il-moone 

large kbeer 

last V. dayan 138.4 chadam 

last adj. acheer 

last (shoemaker's) kalib 18.1 

lasting mdayin 

late likkees; wachri 

lately min mdodde 

lath bo'ordadiye 

lathe machrata 

lattice sha'riye 163 

laugh dihik 114.1 

laugh, make adbak 141.1 

laughter dihk 

laundiy marsal 

law uasam 166.4 kanoou 14 

lawful lj:anooni| 

lawsuit da-we t§&, £1^ 

lay hatt 

lay (table) saff,i.-7- V 

lay . . . before shakajU 

lazy kaslan 176.2181.2 

lazy, be tkasal 

lead V. kad 126.2 
lead round mashsha 
lead to wadda ila 137.2 
lead-pencil kalam rga?; 
leader kayid 9 
leaf waraka 
leak V. zarab 
leak n. zaraban 
lean v. ittaka; mal 126.2 
lean adj. d^eef 181.1 
leap fazz 116.1 natt "an 
leap over kafaz 113.5 
learn t'allam 142.1 
learned ';'ilim 90b 176.3 
learned man 'aleem 3 
last, at the in kallaliit; bi 
leather jild 

leave v. dashshar 136*1 
challa 137.2; imjaraf 144.1 
leaven n. chameere 
left, to the 'ash-shamal 
leg sak 11 
legging tmak 
legible makri 
lemonade limonada 202 
lend "ar 126,2; karad 
length tool 

lengthen towwal 137.1 
leprous adj. n; abrag 180.2 
less ilia 54a asrar 
lessen kallal 
lesson mteele 12 
lest layilla 
let (house) kara 127.3 ajar 

let (allow) challa 137.2 
let us 21 1. 

letter (alphabet) harf 6a 
letter maktooh 172. 201 
level (flat) mdostawi 
lexicon kamoos 14 
liar kaddab 167.1 
liar, declare one 134 
liberal kareem 178 chiyir 
liberality karam 
liberty hdorrive 
lick lihis 114J 
lid rata 
lie V. (opp: stand) (jlaja' 

145 a 
lie V. nakar; kadab 113.1 
lie n. kidbe 
lies, obvious hals bi hals 
life 'eeshe 
lift V. shal 126.2; rafa' 


light V. sbacal 
light n. (Jow; noor 5a 
light (opp. heavy) chafeef 
91. 181.1 
lighten v. barak 
lightning bark 6a 
like adj. mitl 
limb 'adoo 
liir.e kil.-i 
limekiln liittoou 
limit V. tiaddad 
limit n. badd 6a 
limp V. «aruj 
limp rachoo 176.1 
line a garment battan 136.1 
line n. zeeh 4a 
line, be put in iftaif 146 
linen kitt&n 
lining btane 
lintel "atabe 
lip shiffe 
liquid siyal 
lira (coin) leera 
list fihris; layiha 
listen tnas^at 142.1 
listener mitnassit 
literary work tasneef 173 
little shwiye; nitfe; sreer 
90a; kaleli 91 
little by little sliwi shwi 
little, tooakallmin el-lazim 
live V. 'ash 126.2 
livelihood koot li kiswe 
lively hirik 
liver kibde 
load V. hammal 
load (a gun) dakk 116.2 
load n. himl 
loaf rreef 
loan kard 
loathe kirif 114.1 
lock V. sakkar 
lock (of door) riil 166.4 

lock wooden dabbe 4b 
lock of hair jaddoole 
lodging maname 
log kol)rmiye pi. karami 
loin chasra 
loiter tmalta" 
lonely minfrid 
long taweel 90a 181.1 
long as, as tool ma 
long for V. ishtak 147 
longing shok. 
long-siiifering taweel er- 
root 183.1 

— 210 — 

look V. shaf 

look n. nasar 5a 

look at ittalla' 'ala 

look w. interest tfarraj "^ala 

looking glass mrai pi. uio'ori 
loop 'ilaka 

loose, be tchalchal, filit 
loose adj. falit 
loose, let falat 113.1 
loosen fakk 116.2 fakfak 
loosened, be (knot) inhall 

Lord rabb 
lord over tsallat 
lose V. da' 126.2 diya' 137 
lose sight of sh^il 'ain-)-suff. 
loser mdiyi' 
loss chisara 
loss, suffer 'idim 114.2 
love V. habb 116.2 
love n. mahabbe 
love, be in hiwi 130R 
lovely lateef 
lover mhibb 167.1 
low wati 
lower V. watta 
lower tahtani 74R 
lowly wadee^ 
luck bass; bacbt 
luggage haje 13.2; 'afsh 
lukewarm tatir 
lump da'boole 
lunch rada 
lung riya 
lurk trassad 
lust shabwe 
lusiy shahwani 175R2 
luxuriant jam eel 
lye safwe 
Machine makina 
mad (from dog) kalban 176.2 
mad, become jaun 116.1 
magazine machzan 169 
magic sihr 
mainly cho-ogoo^an 
majesty jalale 
make sawa 140, 'amal 
make into siyar 137.1 
maker 'amil 
male n. dakar 7 
manage dabbar 
management m'amale r 
man from 175R 1. 
man, big keeki 
manly rijjili 175 - 

mane 'obrf 
manger ma'laf 
manners slook, masra 
mantle for women izar la 
manufactory ma'mal 
manure zibl [lazim 

many, too aktar min_, el- 
marble racham 
marbles gdblli 2 
mare faras 5a 
margin haffe 
market sool^ 5a 
maronite 13.3N 
marriage iz-zeej e 
married, be tjowwaz 142.4 
marrow mdbchch 
marry one to another jo w- 

waz 137.1 
martyr shaheed 3 
marvel at inbahal 
marvellous 'ajeeb 
mason ammar 167.1 baana 
mass (eccl.) kdbddas 
massacre madbaha 
mast sari 13.3 
master m-allim 
mat, straw haseere lb 
match (sulphur) kibreet 
matchless mailosh nageer 
matter mas'ale 
matter, it does not ma Jaish 
matter, it is a small ishi 

kale^l 84 
matter, what is the shoo 
mattress firash la 
meadow marj 6a 
meagre d-eef 
meal wak'a 
mean (low) dani 
mean (think) ginn 
mean (intend) 'ana 
means, by all 'ala kooU hal 
meaning n. ma'na 
means t^reelja lb 
means of, by "an yadd 
measure (capacity) v. kal 
measure (length) v. kas 
measure n. kail; kyas 
meat lahm 
mediate twassat 
mediator waseet 3 
medicine dawa oR 2 
meditate t'ammal 142.2 
iflakar 145.1 

Mediterranean bahr er-room 
meet laka 140 
meet each other tlaka 143.4 
meet s. o. iltaka 148 
meeting mdoltaka 
melody laVu 5a 
melt dab 126.1 
memorable byisthiklk it- 
mend v. sallah 136.1 
mend (patch) v. rakka"^ 

mend a seam kattab 136.1 
mend n. ro'ok'a 2 
mention dakar 145b 
merchandise bida'a 12 
merchant tajir 9; biya.' 
merciful shafook 
merciless kasi 
mercury zaibak 
mercy shafaka 
merit istih^ak 
message chabar 
messenger sa i 9N; mirsal 
metal ma'dan 169 [nasat 
method tareeka; oosloob; 
metre mitr 7 
mew V. mawa 130 
middle wastani 176.R 2 
midst wast 4 
midwife daye r 
mighty kadeer 
migrate hajar 
mild lateef 
mile meel 4a 
milk V. balab 113.1 
milk n. haleeb 
milk, dried kishk 
milky way tareekit-tabbane 
mill tahoon 157; 168.14; 
mill, hand jarooshe 174 
miller tabh;m 
mind n. 'akl 6a 
mine cf § 15. 
minister (polit.) safeer 3 
minor kasir 179 
minute dakeeka 12 
miracle 'ajeebe 
mirage sarab 
mischief darar: ■ shaka 
mischievous shaki 182 
miser bacheel 
miserable (phys.) ta'ees 
miserable (moral) radi 
misfortune bab'ye 10 
missionajy mbasbshir r 

— 211 — 

mist rtaita 
mistake ralat 5a 
mistaken, be inchada' 
mistress sitt r 
misuse salam 
mitigate lattaf 
mix jjibal 118.1 chalat 
mixed machloot 176.1 
moan v. tnaiihad 142.1 
moderate i'tadal 
moderation i'tidal 
modern jdeed 
modest nazeeh 
modest, be twada' 143.8 
modesty haya. nazalia 
moisten v. ball 116.1 
moment lahsa 
moment, in a fi ramsliet'ain 
monarchy saltane r 
monastery dair 6a 
money, bridal mahr 6a 
money masari 
money-changer sarraf 
money-lender mdayin 
monk rahib 11 
monster mahool 
month shahr 6a 
monthly shahri 
moon kamar 4a 
moon, full badr 6a 
moon, new hlal r. f. 
morality «ard 
more, no 81 
more than bikteer 95 

more, the .. . the more kooU 
ma . . . kcHjll ma 94 
morning go'bbh; sabah r. i, 
morrow, to bdbkra 
morsel, Idbkme 2 
mortal knbil il-mot 
mortality mot 
mortar, building teen 
mortar, stone jo^orn 4a 
mortar; metal hawin 
mortgage rahn 
moslim mdbslim 167.1 
mosquito-curtain namoosiye 
most, at the bi^l-kteer, 
in kiittariit 
mostly raliban 
mote ua?ra r 
mother o'omm pi. dommayftt 
or o'ommahat 
moth eaten m'attit 
motionless mjammad 

mould kalib 18.1 
moulding mastabe 
mount V (animal) rikib 
mountain jabal 4a 
mourn hadd 126.2 
mourner ha did r 
mourning ho'ozn 5a 
moustache sharib 13.1 
mouth to'omm; fo'omm 
movable mitharrik 
move, a thing za'za^ 
much kleer 181.1 
much, as ... as kadd 73 
much more than bi_^l-kteer 
much, so ... as kadd 78 
much, too aktar min _ el- 
lazim, bi or fi-zyade 
muddy, become wahhal 

muddy, make jaljak 
muleteer mo'okari 
multiplication darb 
multiply darab 60 
multiply o.s. izdad 45. b 
mumble hamdar, tamtam 
municipal council majlis 
il-biiladiye 163 
munition dacheere 
murder v. katal 
murder n. katl 
murderer katil r 
murmur v. itdammar 
murmur u. itdimmir 
muscle 'adal 5a 
music moozeeka 
musk misk 
mustard chardal 
mutilate charrab 
mutiny hayaj 
mutton bayad 
my cf § 11. 
mystery sirr 4a 
Nail V. sammar 136.1 
nail n. mismar 171 
nail, finger difr 
nailed, be tmasmar 
naked "aryan 176.2 
name v. samma 
name n. ism pi. asma 
namely yi'ni 
napkin foota 2N I ; bashkeer 

narrate charraf 
narrative cho'oirafiye; 


narrator kassag 

narrow diyik 90a: kaleel 
el-'ard 171 R 
narrowness (Jeek 
nasty radi 
nation dbmme 
national o~bmmi 
native n. & adj. baladi 
native land blad 
natural tabee4 
nature (temper) tab' 
nature, good latafe 
naughty shaki 
nausea karaf 
navel gdbrra 2 zdbkra 
near kareeb 90a; hadd 
nearly takreeban 
necessary adj. & adv. 

necessity ihtiyaj 167.2 
neck rakbe 4b 'o'onk 5a 

necklace tok 5a 
need v. "az 126.1 
need n. 'aze r 
needle ibre 2 
needle, packing msalle r 
negation nafl 
neglect v. abmal 
negligence ihmal 
negligent mo'bhmil 
negro %abd 8 
neigh hamham 154 
neighbour jar 11 
neighbourhood jeere 
neither . . . nor ma . . . 
nephew ibn il-chal or 'amm 
nerve 'asab 5a 
nest 'ishsh 6a 
net shabaka 4b 
never ma . . . abiidan 
never I, etc. ma ""o'orari etc. 
nevertheless ma- hada 
new jdeed 91 
news chabar 5a 
newsi)aper jo'ornal 167.2 

next, the jai 200 
niece bint il-chal or 'amm 
night laile 168N 
night, pass the kadda^^^l- 

night gown kamees in-nom 
nightly ko^oU laile 
nipple halame 
no cf. 71 la 

noble ahareef 90a; sareef 
181.1; balame; facliir; a^eel 
nobody wala had an 
nod n. isharar 
noise rosh c 
noisy mrowwish 
nominate "iyan 
nominated, be t'iyan 
nonsense hablane 
nook ko'aine 
noon go'bhr 
noon-rest ^aile 
noose shoota r 
north shamal 
nose mdonchar 171; anf 6a 
nose-bag michlai 
nostril chdbzk il-minchar 
not cf. 81 
not yet lissa ma 
not even batta ma 
note-book daftar el-mla- 
nothing wala ishi 
nothing, for balash [rair 
nothing else wala shee . . . 
notice n. i'lan r. f. 
noun ism 
nourish i^tat 
nutritious mraddi 
now halkait, hal-wakt, issa 
nowhere wala fi makan 
number 'adad5a;'idde41.R 
nun rahbe r 
nurse v. rabba 
nurse, (sick) v. i^tana 
nurse, wet mradd'a r 
nut (mech.) tlaifha 
01 ya 87 
that ya rait 89.2 
oath yameen 
obedience ta'a 
obey tsamma'^ 142.1 
object V. dadad 
object n. haje 
objection mdodadade r 
oblige (force) jabar 
obliged majbfior 
obliterate maha 
obscene wisicli, kidir 
observation nihihaga 
observe rakab 
obstacle mani' 13a 
occasion fo'brga 2 
occupation imtilak 
odious mdbheen 
odour (bad) natane 
off. lice ihane r 

— 212 — 

offence, take achad 139.2 outer barrani 74 
offend ahan outlet machraj 169 

offer V. kaddam la 136.1 outside bd,rra 
offer resistance dadad 139.1 outwards barra; la barra 

offer n. takdime 
offering 'atiye 
office waseefe 12 
officer dabit 9 
official ma'moor 165.3,201 
'nmil 168.9 mwassaf 
official d ecoration neeshan 
oil, olive zait [171 N 
oil, simsim seerij 
oily midhin 
ointment barham c 
okiye dokiye r & awak 
old 'ateek, kadeem 177 
olive press, stone badd 6a 
omelette 'ijje 
omission tark 
omit tarak 
omnipotence ko~bdra 
omniscience & adj. 'aleem 
once chatra; marra 
once, at 'ala_,l-harik 
one byonewahad wahad 57 
one, regard as wahhad 
only bass 

ood (mus. instr. ) 'ood 11 
open v. fatah 113.3 
opening fatih 104 
opinion rai; sinn 
opium afyoon 
opponent chagm 7 
opposite kbal 
opposition mdodadade 
oppress kahar 113.3 
oppression jabr; sdblm 
or ow 

orator chateeb 3 
order v. wasga; amar 
order n. tarteeb 
order (command) wapiye 

10; amr 13.1 
origin a^l 6a 
original adj. asli 
ornament v. ziyan 137.1 
ornament n. zeene 
orphan, become tyattam 

oven fo'orn pi. afran 

of shone & earth zarb 
over fok 

overcast (sky) mriyim 
overcoat, long jdobbe r 2 
overcome ralab 
overcome by, be indarr 
overflow taf 126.1 
overhead, fok; fokani 175 

overlook tall 'ala 116.2 
overpower ralab 
oversee nasar 'ala t^ 
overseer mnasir 167.1 
overtake sabak 113.4 
over weight, it is rajih 
owe cf. 70 
owner sahib 
ox goad mihmas 171 
Pace kadam 
pack V. hazam 113.2 
package bdbkje 
packing-needle msalle 
packsaddle rahl 6a 
padlock kifl 
pail satl 6a 
pain waja' 

pain, cause owja' 141.2 
pain, suffer t'allam 142.2 
painful aleem; mooji' 
paint V. sowwar 137.1 
paint n. dhan c 
painted madhoon 176.1 
pair joz 
palace kasr 6a 
palatable ladeed 
pale asfar 

palm of hand kaff 6a 
pan, frying kallaye r 
pan, native wash tabak4a 
pane, window loh 
panel birwaz 
pantaloons (nat.) shirwal 

orphan, make ya,t_tam 136 5 pantaloons (Europ.)^ Wnta- 
orphan adj.. yateem 181.2 

orphan tyittim 
orphanage d&r il-itam 
Osmanli 'o'otmani 
other rair 35; 'adam 
ought (•/• ^0 


Ion 172 
waralj c 
blotting warak 


parable matal 
parasol shamsiye 191b 

— 213 — 

parch nashshaf 
pardon v. =adar 
pardon, ask istaffar 
pardon n. 'idr 
parents ahl 

part n. Ijism 5a; jiz' 5a 
part take ishtarak 145.1 
partnership, enter into tsha- 
particular cho'osoo^ii 
partly . ..partly ishi...ishi 
partner shreek 
partnership shirke 
party liizb 5a 
pasha basha 166.4 
pass (hand) nawal 
pass by fat 126.1; marak 
pass on marak min 
pass the night bat 126.3 
passage zaroob 14 
passenger rakib 9 
passion mail 
passport tadkara 170 
past (time) madi; sabik 
pat V. tabtab li 154 
patch ro'bk'a 2 
path darb 5b 157 tareek 
patience ^^abr 
patriarch batrak 174N 
patron "ameel 3 
pattern m'ibstara 17(J 
pause V. wakaf 
pause n. wakf 
pave ballat 136.1 
paving-stone balat 
pay dafa' 

pay a debt wafa 129 
payment wafi 
peace, make rada 
peace, make . . . together 
peace so'olh 
peaceful msalim 
pearl lool'To pi. la'ali 
peasant fallah r 
peel n. jild, kislir 
pen kaiam 5a reeshe pi. 
penalty kasa§ 
penholder masket reeshe 
penitence tobe 
penitent n. & adj. tayib 
pent-roof rafraf 167.2 
people sha'b 6a 
pepper falfal 
pebble haswe r 
percentage faide c/" 55. fayed 

perception shoVoor 
perfect oo§ooli, tamm 
perfection kamal 
perfidious chayin 
perfume reeha tibe 
perhaps maglaha, yimkin 
cf. 141. 3N 
peril chatar 
period mdbdde 
perish tilif 114.1 
perjure zoor 
perjury yameen zoor 
permanent dayim 
permission idn 
permit v. adan 
permitted masmooh 176.1 
perplex hiyar 
perplexed, be thiyar 142.4 
perplexed, become ihtar 147 
persecute idtahad 
persecution idtihad 
persevere in dawam'ala 
Persia blad il-f o'ors or 'aj am 
person shachg 5a 
personally shachsi 
perspire itbachchar. 'irik 
perspiring 'arkan 176.2 
persuade akna' 
persuasion i^na' 
pert dili" 
pest waba 
pestle madakka 
petition talab 
petrify thajjar 
petty zaheed 
pharmacist farmashi 162 
pharmacy farmashiye 
philosopher filasoof 174N 
phlegm chzook il-'arak 
photograph v. §owwar 
photographed, be tsowwar 
photograph n. soora 
photographer m§owwir 
physician tabeeb 
piaster kii'sh 6a 
pick kattaf 136.1 
pick (fruit) faraf 113.5 
pick out nakka 137.2 
pick-axe fas pi. foos 
picture goora 2 
piece kat'a 2 shakfe 
piecework, take in tkawal 
pierce bachash 113.3 

piety takwa 

pig headed (he) raso kbeer 
183R 2 kbeer er-raa 18HR 1 
pilgrim h^gj 9 
pilgrimage zyara 
pilgrimage, go on zar 126.1 
pill habbe 
pillar 'amood 14 
pillow mchadde 
pillow-case bait mchadde 
pilot kilawo'os 
pin dabboos 
pinafore wazra bi kmam 
pincers mal^at 
pinch V. ^ara? 
pious taki 

pipe, smoking ralyoon 
pipe, clay water kadoos 
pipe, metal water Jjastal 
pipe, bag naye r 
pistol tabanja 
pit joora 

pit for grain mafmoora 174 
pitch (tent) na^ab 
pith lo'obb 
pity shafaka 
place V. hatt 116.2 
place matrah; makan [28 
place of whom, in 'an meen 
plain (simple) baseet 
plain n. sahl 6a 
plait (hair) v. jaddal 186.1 
plait of hair jdeele 12 
plane v. masah 
plane (tool) fara 
planet siyar r.f. 
plauk loha r 
plant V. raras 
plant n. nabate pi. nahat 
plaster (wall) ka^ar 
plaster (med.) laz^a r 
plate pahn 6a 
play V. Ii'ibll4 
play n. li'be r 
pleasant maljbool 
please ef. § 25 
please v. (like a thing) 

a'jab 141.1 
please, if youtfaddal [143.2 
pleasure, have the t'anas 
pleasure kaif 
pledge rahn 
plentiful bi katra 
plenty katra 
pliable kabil il-lawi 
plough V. harat 

A Manual of Palestioean Arabic 


— 214 — 

plough n. sikke 159; 'ood 
ploughshare lia''™«? sikke 
plucky, kataf 113.5 
plumage reesh 
plunge into (water) uatt fi 
pocket jaibe 6a 
poem shi'r 5a 
poems, coll of deewan 14 
poet sha'ir 3 
point V. bara 
point (of tool) ras 
point out warra 13/. 2 
pointed mrowwas 176.1 
poison V. sammam 136.3 
poisoning, blood tsimmdbm 
poke razz 
police boolees 
polish V. lamma' 
polite adeeb, lateef 
political siyasi 
politics siyase 
pomade dhan 
pomp trdbmba 
poor fakeer 90a 178 
poor, become iftakar 
pope baba 166.4 
population so^okkan pi. of 
popular 'ammi 
porcelain seeni 163 keeshani 
pore masam r. f. 
porter (carrier) 'attal pi. 
porter door- bowwab 
portion kism 5a 
position mowkif 
possess malak 
possession mdbktana 
possession, gain imtalak 
possession, hotc expressed 
cf.%% 11 to 18 
possessor sahib 
possible, be amkan 
possibly mo'omkin 
possibility imkan 
post V. wakkaf 
post (wood) sande r 
posterity ddorriye 
post-office bosta 
postpone l.iadaf 
postpone a promise tma- 
tal 143.1 
pot, clay-cooking b;idre 6a 
pot, metal cooking tanjara 
potsherd sha^fe 
potter fo'ochchari 162. 1 67R 
pottery fo'ochchar 162 

poultry tyoor 
pound V. dakk 116 
pound (money) leera 
pour ijabb 

pour out kabb; sabb 116.2 
poverty fa^r 
powder, gun barood 
power kdbwwe 
powerful mo^oktidir 
practice v. tmarran 
practice n. tamreen 
praise v. hamad 113.2 
pray >;alla 137.2 
prayer §alah 
preach wa'as 122 
preacher wa'is 
precaution intibah 
precede marak, ^o'bddAm 
precious 'azeez 181.1 
precipitate rakad 113.5 
preface n. mkaddame 
prefer faddal ^ala 136.1 
preference tafdeel 
pregnancy habal 
pregnant hibla 176.1 N 
prepare hiya 
prepare o.s. ista'ad 151 
preparation isti'dad 
prescribe wasaf 
prescription wasfe 
presence, in my bi wo^ojoodi 
presence, your (form of 
address) hadartak 
presence (authority) haibe 
present v. ahda 
present be hidir 114.2 
present n. hadiye 10 

bachsheesh 173 
present adj. mowjood 
preserve (savoury food ) v. 

kabas 113.1 
preserve n. tatle 
press V. (crowd) zaham 
press n. makbas 169 
pressure kabse 
pretend to be badly off 

pretend to be something 

idda'a l-tSb 
pretty jameel 90a; kwiyis 
prevail faz 126.1 
prevent mana' 
previous day kablha bi yom 
previous kabl 
price taman; keeme r 
priceless ma byittamman 
prick nachaz 113.3; razz 

pride ko'obriya 
priest choori 168 N 
prince ameer 3 
principallv chdo800§an 
print V. taba' 113.3 
printed, be intaba' 114.1 
printer tabba"" 165.3 
printing n. tba'a 
printing-press matba'a 170 
prison habs 6a sijn 6a 
prison, cast into cf. § 116.2 
prisoner aseer 3; mahboos 
private, in bi_,s-sirr 
prize jaize r 
probation tajribe 
procession, in bi^^s-saff 
procession (relig.) ziya^i 
proclaim intachab 
proclamation inticbab 
procure iktana 
produce v. sabbab 
produce n. mahsool 167.2 
profession kar r. f. 
profit maksab 
profitable mkassib 
profligate n. sakit; fasik 
progress takaddo'bm 
progress, make tkaddam 
prohibit yassak 136.4 
prolong towwal 
promise v. wa'ad 122 
promise n. wa'd 
pronounce lafas 
proof bo'orhan 171 
proper chas 
proper, be lak 126.2 
property chagga; 
prophecy tnabba 
prophet nabi 
proportion nisbe 
proportionate bi.^n-nisbe 
proposal mashoora 
propose shar 126.2 
prose natr 
prospect amal 
protect 0. s. ittaka 145.3 
prosper yassar 13'\4 
prosperity tiseer 
prostitute kahbe 4b 
prostrate immaddad 
protect hafas 113.2 
protected mahroos 
protection himaye r 
protrude nabbaz 
proud mitkabbir 
proud of, be tfachar bi 

— 215 — 

prove barhan 
proverb matal 5a 
provide dabbar 13'i.l 
providence tadbeer 
province m^ata'a r 
provocation tabreek 
provoke harrak 
prudence nabaha 
prudent nabeeh 
prune v. ta'am 
psalm mazmoor 
puberty bloor 
publish nashar 
publisher nashir 
pudding bo'odeen 
pull sahab 113.3 
pull hard inshadd 144.3 
pull out chala% chama' 
pulpit minbar 169 
punish nabat 
punish ^Hsa§ 139.1 jaza 140 
punishment kagas 
pupil of eye bo~bbo"b 
pupil tilmeed 173 
purchase v. ishtara 148 
pure (unmixed) ?afi 
purgative sharbe r 
purple kirmiz 
purse kees 5b jisdan 
pursue each other idtahad 
pus midde 
push lazz 
push by force dafa' 
put down wada^ 122 
put down, be iu^iatt 144.3 
put in order rattab 
put on (kettle etc.) rakkab 
putrid m'affin 176.1 
putty malteen 
pyramid haram 5a 
Quality no' pi. anwa' 
qualities, characterized by 
good or bad ittasaf 145.3 
quantity kammiye r_ 
quarantine karanteena r 
quarrel v. tljatal 
quarrel with shamat 139 I 

quarrel together tshamat 

quarrel n. shamata 
quarry v. hajjar 
quarry n. mahjara 170 
quarry-man hajjar r 
quarter of town Uara r 
queen malake r 

quench rawa 

question s. o. istafham 
question n. so1)"al r 
quick adj. & adv. ^awam 
quickness chdoffe 
quiet hadi 
quiet, be kann 116.1 
quiet 0. s. sakkat nafso 
quietness had&we 
quietly ^as-sakt 
quit tarak 
quite chali^ 
quote tamman 
quotient charij il-kisme 
Race V. tsabal^ 
rag chirka 2 
rage v. thiyaj 
rage n. hayajan 
rage, get into ihtadd 14H 
railway sikket il-badeed 
r'y station ma^atta r 
rain v. amtarat 141.1 

ashtat 141.3 
rain n. matar 168.5 a 
raise (plants) zara" 
rank makam 
ransom badal 
rare & adv. nadir 
rather kabl 

rate, (toll) ijrit ed-darb 
rational faheem 
ravenous kasir 
raw (uncooked) ni 
ray sha'a' r.f. 
raze halat 
razor moos 5b 
reach v. wi^il 
read Ijara 127 
reader kari 
readiness istiMad 
ready chali?; t^dir 
realise t§owwar 
really! ya tara 89.4 
reap hasad 
reaper has?ad r 
reason sabab 5a 
rebellion hayaj 
receipt wagl 
rebuked, be t'azzar 
receive kabal 
receive (a guest) ista^bal 
recent kabl mdbdde 
reception 'azeeme r 
recipe wa§fe 
reckon basab 

recline lawa 
recognise i'taraf fi 
recognition i'tiraf 
recollect tadakkar 
recommend wagga bi 137.2 
chabbar 'an 
recommendation too^aye r 
recompense kafa 140 
reconcile rada 
reconciliation mgalaba 
record n. wa^'a 
recover (health) gahh 116.1 
t'afa 143.4 shifi 127.2 
recovery shifa 
red ahmar 180.1 
red, become ibmarr 149 
redeem fada 127.2 
redemption fida 
reduce diyak 
reduction tadyee^ 
refer ashar 'ala 
refrain from imtana, 
refresh barrad, tkowa 
refreshment takwiye 
refuge, take tbamafi 143.4 
refusal 'adam Ijoobool 
refuse v. imtana' 145.1 
regard as strange istarrab 
regard n. i'tibar 
regiment jaish 
regret v. t'assaf 'ala 142.2 
regret n. t'issif 
reign v. malak 
reins Ijam 
reject rafad 
rejection rafd 
rejoice firih 113.5 
rejoice at thanna 142.1 

insarr 144.3 
rejoice malignantly ishtafa 
rejoiced, be t'anas 143.2 
relate charraf 
relative kareeb 12 
re-let ^awad ajar 
reliance ittikal 
relieve tchallag 
religion deen 
rely upou ittakal 145.3 
remain Mil 114.1; biki 
127.2; 81 
remain over faddal 'an 

remark n. mlahaaa 
remember fitin 114.1 tdak- 
kar 142.1 

— 216 — 

remember of old wa'a 129 
remind s.o. fakkar fl 136.1 
remiud o.s. fitin 
remnaut bakiye 10 
remorse towbeech 
remove (leave house) nakal 
rend mazza' 
rend garment tchazzak 

renew jaddad 136.1 
renewal tajdeed 
renounce ista'fa 
rent (house) istakra 
rent of house kira 
rent (tear) shdoljck: 6a 
repair sallah 
repeal oolri 
repeat "ad 126.1 
repent nidim 114.1 
repent, make naddam 
repentance nadame 
repetition tikrar 
replace 'owad 
reply v. jawab, radd 
reply n. jawab 
repvSe n. ra^ia 
reprehensible mi'tir 
reproach v. 'iyar 
reputation geet 
request v. talab 113,5 

wag^a 137.2 
request n. talab 
resemblance mshabaha 
resemble shabah 
resign ^addam; isti^fa 
resist m&na' 
resolve v. Ijarrar 
resolved, be sammam 
respect n. i^tibar 
respite kata"" 
respite, give amhal 141.1 
respond radd «ala 
responsible mtalab 
rest V. istarab 152 
rest 0. 8. irtat 147 
restore (bring back) rajja' 
result nateeje 
retaliate jaza 140 
retard amhal 
retire tili' min 
return v. "ad 126.1. 81 

'awad, raja' 
return n. raj 'a 
reveal kasha! 
reveal the future baear 

el-bacbl 113.3N 
ravenge ^r 

reverence i'tibar 
reverse a vessel tabb 
revolution tora 
reward v, 'owwad 
rewarded, be tjaza 143.4 
reward n. mjazah 
rheumatism diV il-mafa^il 
rhyme kafye 13.2 
rib dil' 6a 
ribbon rabta r 
rich rani 90a. 182 
rich, become istarna 
rich, make arna 
riches rina 
riddle larz 5b 
ride v. rikib 'ala 114.1 
chiyal 137.1 
ride n mishwar 171 
rider faris 11 chiyal 
riding animal dabbe 
right, be 70 

right (opp. left) yameeu 
right, (correct) masboot 
right, to the 'al^yameen 
rigid, become tyabbas 142.3 
rind kishr .5a 
ring chatim 13.1 
ring, signet chitm 7 
riot haiza'a r 
ripe mistwi 176.1 
ripe, become istawal48E 
rise V. kam 126.1 
rise V. (sun) sharak 113.1 
river nahr 7 
road darb 157 tareek la; 
sikke 2 
roar v. za'ar 
roar u. za'eer 
roast on skewer shawal30 
rob niihab 113.3 
robbed of, be insalab min 
robber loogs 4a 
rock n. ?achr 6a 
roll V. da'bal 
roll n. bakara 
roll back laff 116.2 
roller madhale 
Roman roomani 
roof gath 6a 
room oda 2 
room, make wassa' 136.4 
roomy wasee' 
rope babl 4a 
rotl rotl 5a 
rough (road) charban 

rough (manners) jafi 

round imdowwar 

round thing, any da'bool 172 

round of ladder daraje 

round, make dowwar 137 

row V. kaddaf 136.1 

row-boat karib 13.1 

royal mlooki 

rub, at the bath kiyas 1.37.1 

rudder mikdaf 171 

ruffian chishin 

ruin V. atlaf, charrab 

ruin (place) chirbe 

rule V. sas 126.1 

rule (pattern) ka'de 

rule, as a bi^l-'ade 

ruler (king) hakim 9 

ruler (instrum.lmasfara 17v0 

ruminate ijtarr 146 

rump badan 5b 

run jara; 127.1 marak 

run a race sabak 139.1 

ruse birfe 2 

rust V. sadda 

rust n. §ada 

Sabbath sabt 

sack chaishe; fiirde; r 

^adeele r 
sack, fodder michlai 167.2 
sack, camel farde 164.4b 
sacrament sirr 
sacred mkaddas 
sacrifice v. kaddam ko'orbau 
sacrifice n. ko'oiban 
sad, be hizin 114.2 
saddle v. sarraj 
saddle sarj 6a 
saddle-bag cho^orj pi. 

saddle, pack jlal r.f. rahl 6a 
saddler srooji 162 
safe amin 
safety aman r.f. 
sage n. hakeem r 
said, be int:al 144.2 
sail kal« 6a 
sailer bahri 

sake, for the 'a yadd, min 
taht I'as 
sale bai' 
salary o'bjra 
salt V. malla^ 
salt n. milh 
salt-ceUar mamlaha r 
salute V. sallam 
salutation salam 166.4 
same, the 31 

— 217 — 

sample m^stara 171 
sand rami c 
sandal na'l 7 
sandy molirmil 
sanity fahm; idrak 
sash zobnnar 171 
satan shitau 171 
satiate v. shabba" 
satiated shab'an 176.2 
satisfied mabsoot 17b. 1 
satisfied, be inbasat 144.1 
satisfy basat 
saturate chara^ 
sausage sarsees 173 
savage barri 

save najjal87.2cballasl36.1 
Saviour mchallig 
saw V. nashar 
saw n. mdbnshar 
say kal 126.1 
saying n. hdbkm 
scaffold mashnaka 
scales meezan 
scar kishre 

scarce & adv. takreeban 
scatter indara 144.4 
scent shamm 
school madriise 17U 
science 'ilm 6a 
scissors makas? 167.2 
scoru ahau 

scoundrel nassab 167.1 
scour jala 

scoured, be injala 144.4 
scourge v. karbaj 
scowl 'abbas 
scratch ^ashar 
scratch (used of pen only) 

scream v- garrach 

scream n. grach 

screw bo^orri 169 

sea ba^ir 6a 

seal V. chatam 113.2 

seal n. chitm 7 

seam stress chiyata 

search a house kabas 113.1 

season fa§l 6a 

season (social) iyam il-mosam 

seat ka'de 

second (time) tanye 13.2 

secret n. sirr 5b 

secretly sirri 

section of orange zeeh 4a 

security rahn 
security, become tkaffal 
security, give kifil 114.1 
seduce tara 
see basar 113.4 141.3 

shaf 126.1 
see to it dab bar 
seed bizr 

seek fattash -ala 136.1 
do w war 'a la 137 
seem biyan 
seize masak 
seldom nadir 
select naljka 
self 30 

selfish nafs^ni 1^5B.2 
sell ba' 126.2 
seller biya' 165.3 
send ba^at 113.3 wadda 
sender bant 
sense (meaning) ma'na 
sent, be inba'at 144.1 
sentence jo'omle 2 
separate v. farak 113.1 

farrak 136.1 
separate from fSrak 139 1 
separate adj. in farak 
separation fagl 6a; tafreek 
serious, i_staid) jadd 
sermon wa'sa 
servant, chadim; chaddam 

167.1 sani' 9 
service chidme 2 cbidame 
sesame-oil seerij 
sesame seed, crushed theene 
set (.sun) rab 126.2 
set u. (tools etc) takm 
set in line, be igtaffl45a 
set (themselves") in line, 

iusaff 144.3 
set in line sali 145a 
set up nasab 113.5 
settle (dregs) rakad 113.5 
several michtilfe 
severe kasi 90a 
severity kasawe r 
sew chiyat 137.1 
sex jins 
shade v. fiya 
shadow siU; fi 
shake naffad 136.1 
shallow wati 
shame 'aib 6a 
shameful mdb'eeb 

shank fachd 4 
shape n. ^alib 
share v. tasam 
share n. sihm 
sharp madi 176.1 
sharpen sann 116.1 
shave b^lak 
sheaf rdomr 
sheepskin coat farwe r 
sheet, bed sharsbaf 170 
shelf raff 6a 
shell (sea) sadaf c 
shelter malja 
shepherd ra'i 11 
sherd kisra 
ship markab 169 
shirk malag 
shiit (man's) kamees 11 
shirt (woman's) Ijcamees 
shoe kdbndra 164 
shoe, European soormaye 
shoe, horse hadwe 
shoe, infant kalkool 172 
shoe, peasant wata, madas 
shoemaker kdondarji 164. 
167.R skafe 
shoot Ijowwas 137.1 
shop ha?il 13.1 machzan 
169 do'okkan 
shot talak 

short kageer 90a 181.1 
shorten kasgar; ichtagar 
shortly -an kareeb ba'd 
shortness kdosr 
shoulder bat 166.4 kitf 5b 
shout nada 
show V. dall 116 farraj 

136.1 'arja' 
shrink dabb 
shrivel tja"ad 
shut sakkar 136.1 
shutter daftet esh-sho~bbbak 
shuttle makkobk 
shy chajool 
sick ''lyan; mareed 
sickle kaloosh; minjal 
sickness marad 
side maile r 
side of, by the 'ala janb 
side-table sdofira minzooye 
siege hasar 
sieve coarse ro'orbal 171 

1* corruption of ara 

— 218 — 

sieve, flour mdbnchdbl 
sieve maker rarabli 
sift rarbal 154 
sigbt mansar 
signal 'alame r 
signature imda 
silence v. sakkat 
silence n. sakt 
silent hadi 
silk hareer 
silken hareeri 183 
silver v. faddad 136.3 
silver n. fadda 
similarity msbababa 
sin V. cbata 127.1 
sin n. cbatiye 10 
since min lamma 
sinew shilsb 6a 
sinful cbati 
sing ranna 136.2 
sing (bird) za^zal^ 
singe sba'wat 
singer mranni 
single mifrid .56.1 
sink inhatt 144.3 
sink into mire wihil 122 
sink n. marsal 
sii up zoom 
sister o'ocht 166.6 
sit jalas 113.1 ka'ad 113.5 
sit cross-legged trabba' 
situated mrakkaz 
situation markaz 
size ko^br 
skeleton bikal 
skewer seecb 4a 
skilful hazik 179 
skill mahara 
skilled mahir 
skin n. jild 6a 
skin, water kirbe 2 
skirt tannoora 174 
skull jimjme 170 
skull-cap carkiye 163 
slack rachoo 176.1 
slander v, washa 
slander n. namm 
slanderer nammam 
slant V. warab 139.3 
slate 16b 5a 
slanting mowroob 
slaughter v. dabah 113.3 

dabbah 136.1 
slave 'abd 8 
slay mowwat 
sleep V. nam 126.1 3 

^sleep n. nom 
sleepy na'san 176.2 
sleeve kimme 4b 
slender mamshook 
slice lob 
slide zabat 
sUm naheef 181.1 
sling (weapon) mo'okla' 
slipper babooj 14; bar- 
toosha 174 
slipthiougb, let marrak 
slit open ba'af 113.3 
slow barid 

slowly shwi shwi, 'ala 
mahl 77 
slowness barade 
small sreer 181.1 
smallness kille 
small pox jidre; jadare 
smell V. shamm 116.1 
smell at sbamsbam 
smell n. reeha 
smelt V. dowwab 
smith liaddad 165 3 
smithy mahdade 
smoke v. (tobacco etc.) 
smoke v. (lamp i sha'lab 154 
smoke n. doochcban 
smooth (opp. rough) mills 
smooth, make mahmad 154 
smother chank 
sniff at shamsham 154 
snow V. atlajat 141.1 
snow n. talj 
snuff z'oot 
soak tarra 
soap V. soban 
soap n. gaboon c 
soap factory masbane r 
sob V. ann 
sob n. aneen 
sock jo1)rbane rijjaliye 
soft (eggj birisht 
soften liyan 1394 
soil trab c 
solder v. laham 113.5 
solder n. Iham 
sole, na'l 4a 
solemn maheeb 
solemnity mahabe 
solid masboot 176.1 
some ba'd 33 kism min 
33 R akammin 
some one wahad 212.2 
something shi or ishi 
sometimes marrdt; amrar 




son ibn 

son in law sihr 

song rina 

soon "an kareeb; ba'd 

soothe hadda 
sofa deewan 
sofa-bolster masnid 169 
sorcerer sahir 159 
sore ddommale 
sorry, be thiyan 142.4 
sort jins; mV 
soul nafs -30. 157. 168. 6a 
sound (healthy) m'afa 
sound (noise) s6t5a 
soup shoraba r 
sour hamid; mtammid 
south jo~bnoob 
southern jobnoobi 175 
sow zara' 
space makan 


sparkle tla'la' 
speak kal 124 haka 127.1 
speak with s. o. tiaka 140 
spear ro~bmh 4a 
spell V. hajja 
spell n. ra^we r 
spend garaf 
spent, be ingaraf 144.1 
spice bhar 166.4 
spice, ground aboo harr 
spill tshatshat 
spin razal 
spindle marzal 
spine sinsle 170 
spirit (ghost) rooh 157 
spirit, evil 'afreet 173 
spirit-lamp alitis-sbeerto'bs 
spiritual roohani 175 R 2 
spit V. bazak 
spite n. jakar 
spite, of in u ma' hada; 

bardoo (Turkish) 
spittle reek 
splendour baha; oobbaba 
split shal^ 116.2; kassar; 
spoil V. fisid 
spoiled, be infasad 144.1 
sponge sfinje r 
spoon ma'laka 170 
spoon for roasting coffee 
spoonful rarie r 

— 219 — 

spot (dirt) bobk^a pi. bobljca' 
sprain faksh 
sprained mafkoosh 
spread farash 113.5 101 
spread o.s. imtadd 146 
spread out nashar 
spread (disease) fasha 127.1 
spreading farish 106 
spring V. rakad 
spring (water) n. nab' 7 
spring (mechan.) reeshe pi. 
spring-time rabee^ 
sprinkled mnakkash 
spur on V. salj; 126.1 
spur n. mihmaz 167.2 
squander bahdar 154 
square mrabba' 167.1 
square, carpenter's zavvye 
squat karfas 154 
stable, cow bakye r 
stable, horse yachoor 14 
stairs daraj c 
stammer tartar 
stand V. wakaf 122 
stand still V. jalas sakit 
star nijme 6b najm 6b 
star, shooting shikfet najm 
starch v. nashsha 137.2 
starch n. nasha 
state h;il .5a 
statement (bill) kaime r 
statue timtal 
stay (sojourn) ikame 
steady mo'bwatjib 
steal sarak 11.3.1 za'at 
steamed (food) imfalfal 
steamer baboor 166.5 mar- 
_ kab 169 

steel boolad 
step, foot fashcha 
step near kaddam 
stern, be 'abas 
stick V. lazzak 
stiff jafi 

still lissa; fldil; baka 81 
stingy bacheel 176!l,178 
stir something hairak 
stir without removing zah- 
zah 154 
stirrup rakkabe r 
stirrup-strap zo'bchma r 
stitcli roorze r 
stocking jdorbaner kaiser 
stoke wakad 122 
stomach mi'de 2 
stone hajar 4a 

stony wa'ir 176.1 

stoop tabb 

stop s.o. wakkaf 136.4 

stop doing battal 
stop up sadd 
store n. machzan 
storeroom bait il-moone 
storm zoba'a 
story kdb^ga; tareech 
stove o'ojak 166.4 
straight ddorri; mo^ostkeem 
straighten matters sawa 
strange rareeb 
stranger rareeb 
strap n. kishat; sair 
straw kashsh c 
straw-stalk kashshe r 
stray mal 126.2 
stretch madd 116.1 
stretch o. s. tmaddad 
stretching out madid 165.2 
street tareek, darb 
street-cry hiddawiye 
strength kdbwe; "izz 
strengthen kowwa 
strike (a tent)' fakk 116.2 
string maf^ees 
strip off kashat 
strive after ijtuhad 
stroll dar 

strong kawi 90a, 182 plur. 
also 168.10 shdeed 91 
strut kambar 
stubborn ^aneed 
study V. daras 
stuff, woven kmash r. f. 
stupid ahbal 
style nasak 
subdue kahar 113.3 
subj ect (gramin.) mdosnad 
submit sallam il-|-suff. 
subscribe wa?sa 137.2 
subtract tarah 60 chasam 

113 1 
succeed v. najah 113.3 
succeed s. o. tibi* 
success nateeje 
succession taba'iye 
successor chalaf 
suck mags 116 2 
suckle radda' 136.1 
suckling till 4 

suddenly 'ala .?/• hi fard 


suffer tak 126.2 ihtamal 

■ 145b 

suffer (pain) t'addab 
suffering n. taja'-o^ok 
suffice kafa 127. 1 kaffa 137.2 
sufficiency kafSi 
sufficient bikaffi 
sugar so"bkkar 
suit V. a'jab IVF 
suit, Europ. takm 
suit (dress) libs 6a 
suitable, be w;'ifak 139.3 
sulphur kibreet 
sum of money mablar 169 
sum (total) mablar 
summer §aif 
sun shams 157.163 
sunrise tloo' esh-shams 
sunset ryab esh-shams 
sunshade shamsiye 163 
sup t'ashsha 142 5 
superfluous zayid 
supper "asha 
supply dabbar 
support v.(help)sa'ad 139.1 
support n. (prop) sande r 
support n. msa'ade 
support of arch rdbkn 5a 
sure akeed 
surety kafeel 3 
surety, give kaddam kifale 
surface wijh 
surprise v. barat 
surprised, be mabroot 
surrender v. sallam 
suspicion soo' is-sinn 
swaddling cloth kofaliye, 
malfoo'iye, kmat; hfad 
swallow V. bala^ 113.3 
swear halaf 113.2 
sweat V. 'irik 114 2 
sweat n. 'arak 163 
sweep kannas 136.1 
sweet hiloo 90a 
sweetness haltiwe 
swell wirim 
swelling (med.) waram 
swim 'km 
swindler mnafik 
swing barram 
swoon V. rimi 
swoon n. yamayan 
sword saif 6a 
sycophant warl 7 
symbol ramz 

220 — 

sympathise shi'ir 
sympathy shdb'oor 
symptom daleel 12 isharar 
Syria sooriya 
Syrian shami l6l 
syringe hdokne 2 
Table sdbfra 164 
table-cloth rata so'ofra 
tabloid da'boole r '" 

tail danab 4a 
tailor chiyat 165.3 
take achadllT ff. 
take amiss twachad 
take away shal 126.2 
take back rajja' 
take OS. away tchiyab 
take care intabah 
take care! oo^a 129R 
take down nazzal 
take for o.s. ittachad 145.2 
take off shal 126.2 
take out taila' 
taken up, be inkam 144.2 
taking n. achd 
tale kissa 2 
talk haki 

talk together thadat 143.1 
thaka 148.4 
talkative lisin 
talker latlat 
tall taweel 

tambourine daff 6atamboorar 
tame ahli 176.1 
tan V. dabar 
tanner dabbar 165.3 
taper v. trowwas 
tar kitran 
tarboosh tarboosh 
target neesau 171N 
task mteele 12, fard 
taste V. dab; 126.1 
taste n. ta'me 
tasty (food) ladeed 
tattoo dakk 126.1 
taunt n. maschara 170 
tax rasm 6a 
tax, ground werko 
tea shai 
tea- cup kaikara 
teach 'ailam 
teacher urallim 167.1 
tear v. mazza' 
tear (rend) n. mamzoo' 
tear down hadd 116.2 
tear (eye) dam'a 6b 
tease kayad 137.1 
teat bizz 

tedious mo'omill 
telegram tallirraf 
telegrajjh v dakk tallirraf 
temple (head) masdar 169 
tempt jarrab 
tenacious '^aneed 
tenant mo'osta'jir 
tend animals sas 126.1 
tendency mail 
tender rachis 176.1; taza 
tent chaime 174N 
tent-peg watad 5a' 
tepid fatir 
terrace tiabale 
terrify sarsab 
terror sarsabe r 
testify shihid 114.1 
testimony ishhade r 
than of comparison min 95 
thank v. tsluikkar 142.1 
thank n. sho^okr 
thankful shakoor 
thanks! mamnoon 
that hadak 18 
that conj. hatta; tii 
that in 

that not hatta ma 
theirs cf. § 15 
then fa'idan 
there honak 
there, to la honak 
therefore fa'idan 
there is fee 71 
thick tcheen 90a 181.1 ra- 
lees 176.1 dachm 181.1 N 
thief nashshal 167.1 hara- 

mi 167R 
thimble kishtban 167.2 
thin (fine) rafee^ 176.1 
thin (lean) rkeek 176.1181.1 
thine cf. § 15 
thing i^matter) sabab 
thing (objects haje 13.2 
think gann 116.1 
think of iftakar fl 
thinking sanin 165.2 
thirst n. "atash 
thirsty .atsh'an 176.2 181.1 
this hada 18 
thorn (splinter) nasra r 
thorn shoke r 
thought fikr 5a 
thoughtful faheem 176.1 
thread o.s. sail dato 
thread n. chait 11 
threat tahdeed 
threaten haddad 136.3 

thresh daras 

threshing plough mora] 
threshing-floor baidar 169 
throat halkoom 167.2 zal- 
'oom 172 
throne ""arsh 
through 'an yadd 
throw rama 127.1 
throw up food istafrar 
thumb bahim 13.1 
thunder n. ra'd 6a 
thunderstorm racdiye 162 
thy cf. § 11—14 
ticket, r'y bilyett 
tie V. shadd 116 1; rabat 
tile of roof karmeed c 
till ta 

time zaman5aR.2 mdbdde 
time, for a long minzaman 
time, single bass marra, 
marra wahde 58 
times, at all ko'oU wakt 
time, from time to min 

mdodde la mdbdde 
timid faz'an 176.2 
tin zeenko 

tingle (ears) tann 116.2 
tinned, be tbiyad 
tinning n. by ad 
tinsmith sankari 167.1 
tire V. at'ab 
tired ta'ban 176.2 
title lakab 

title deed hijje, kooshan 
to la 

toast choobz mhammas 
tobacco do"ochchan, to^oto'bn 
to-day el-yom 
toe isba' ir-rijl 
together sawa sawa 
toil n. sho'orl mo'ot'ib 
tomb kdbbr 
to-morrow bdbkra 
tongue lisan r f. 
tooth sinu pi. snan 
top ras 

tops> -turvy chabeesa 
torch mishjal 169 
torment v. addab 136.1 
total bi^l-ko~olliye 
touch V. bass 116.1; dass 
116,1 da'as 
touch n. lams 
touch-stone mahakk 
tough 'asi 176 1 
towards sob 
towel manshiite 170 

— 221 — 

tower bdbrj; kdbbbe 
town balaci 163,168 Ja; 175 
mdeene lb 
trace v. najtash 
trace n. atar 
trade v. sawam 139.4 
trade n. kar 166.4 
trade licence tamattoo' 
tradition takleed 173 
train v. (horse) tabba' 
train n. sikke 2 
transfer v. nakal 
transfer n. nakle c 
translate tarjam ln4 
translation tarjame r 
translator mtarjim r 
transparent shaffaf 
trap n. fachch 4a 6a 
trap, mouse masyade 
travel v. safar 
travel u. safar 
traveller msafir r 
tray seeniye 163 
tray for baking sidr 
treacherous raddar 
treasure kinz 
treat (regard) sawa 
treat kindly lataf 139.1 
treaty m'ahade 
trellis, shacriye 163 
tremble rijif 
trembling rajif 166.2 
tribe kabeele 12 
trick hirfe 2 
trim V. (lamp) kas? 
triple cf. 56 
troop jama'a r 
trot n. rahwan 
trouble n. ta ab; bamm 
trouble, cause at'ab 141.1 
troubled, be idtarab 145a 
troublesome mhiyij 
trough, kneading i3atye 
trough, watering ma'jan 
trowel mastareen r.f. ma'laka 
true saheeh 181.1 
trunk (box) sandook 1/2 
trust V. ittakal 
trustee, appoint twakkal 
truth do'brri 
truth, in hakkan 
truthful mistkeem 
try jarrab 
tumbler ko'bbbai r. f. 
turban lafte r -a?aibe r 
turban, small shamle r 

turn, my etc. dori etc 
turn V. dar 126.1 
turn round tlaffat 142.1 
turn from (road) hiyad =au 
turn out (good or evil) tala' 
turn over kalab 113.1 
turn towards d;'ir la 
turner charrAt 165.3 
twofold imda'af 56E.2 
type, be put in insati 144.3 
Udder bizz 
ugly shiui' 90a 
uli'er do~bmmale 170 
umbrella shamsiye r 
unaccustomed mo^osh 

unadulterated mo^bsh mar- 
shoosh 176.1 R 
unanimous mo"ottahid 
unavoidablv miu ko'^ll bidd 
_ 79 

unawares bidoon 'ilm 
unbeliever kafir 201.168.9 
unchanged mo~bsh mriyar 
uncertain mo'osh m'akkad 
uncle (maternal) chal 5a 
uncle (paternal) «amm 7 
uncountable rair or moosh 

uncover kashaf 113. 1 
undated mo'osh mtorach 
uncultured kaleel el-adiib 
under cf. 73 
underneath 175R 2 
understand fihim 17. 103. 
understanding faheem 178 
undertake to do istalam 
undisturbed bidoon 'aka 
undress shalah 
unfortunately li soo' il-hass 
ungrateful rair shakoor 

176.1 R 
unhappiness ta'ase r 
union damm 
unite damm 
unjustly cf. 78 
unkind mdbsh lateef 
unknown mo'osh ma'roof 
unlace fakk 

unless ma lamm _ 

unpleasant mo'bsh makbool 
unripe fajj 176.1 
unstich farat 113.5 

until ta; la cf. 79 
unwise mo-osh bi fahm 
unworthy mo'osh liyik 
upon 'ala ; 'a 65.66 
upper fokani 74R 
upright do-orri. 
uprightness istikame 
upset shaklab 154 
urge on nahar 113.3 
urgent lajooj 
urine ishchach 
use V. ista^'mal 
use n. isti mal 
use (custom) 'ade r 
use of, make ista'mal 
useful nafi'; mo^ofeed 
utmost achir daraje 
Yacant ladi 
vaccinate ta"'-am 
vacillate t^allab 
vague mo'osh m'akkad 
vainly fi or -ala il-balash; 
valise shanta 
valley w.'.di UN 
valuable tameen 
value V. tamman 
value n. taman 5a; keeme r 
vanish chifi 
vanity iddi'a 
vapour bo"ochar c 
varied mo^ochtilif 
vase mazhariye 
vault kos 
vegetable yachne r 
vegetables, mould of ffeere 
veil, long mandeel 173 
veil, face bdorko'b' 
vein 'irk 6a 
velvet mdbchmal 
venerable wakoor 
venerate wakkar 
venture v. tjasar 
verdict ho~bkm 
verse bait 5a 
very kteer 95 
vessel anye 13.3 
vex kahar; marmar 
vexation kahr 
verdigris jinzar 
vest sidriye 
vice cife r 

vice (mech.) malzame r 
vicious raddar 
victor ralib 
victory ralabe; nasr 

A Manual of Palestinean Arabic. 


— 222 — 

vie tsabak 
view manaar 169 
vigilant sahran 
vile sifili 
village l^arje c 
villain taras 
vindicate barrar 
vinegar cliall 
vineyard karm 6a 
violence jabr 
violent jabbar 
virgin bint batool 
virtue fadeele 
visit V. zar 126.1; sharraf 
visit n. zjara r 
visitor zayir 
voice got 4a 
volume mjallad 
voluntarily miftowwi'' 
vomit istafrar 150 
vomiting natik 
vote V. sowvvat 
voter msowwit 
voting tagweet 
voucher w agl 
vow V. nadar 
vow n' nidr 7 
vowel harake 
voyage safra 
vulgar dani 
Wade tabbash 
wag hazz 

wager v. sharat 139.1 
wages dbjra 2 mahiye 
wail V. nadab 
wailing mauata; 'aza 
waist wirk 
waistcoat sidriye 
wait sabar; istangar 150 
istauna 153 
wait for igt^bar 145a is- 
tansar 150 
waiter sdbfraji 164 
wake up fiya^ 137.1 
waki n falj 126.2 
walk V. raasha 127.1 
walk, take a tmashsha 
walk n. mishwar 171 
wall hait 11 siusle 170 
wall, dry rab'a 
wallow tmarmar 
wane girir 

want (desiie) v. bidd 116R 
want (desire) v. 'az 126.1 
want (need) n. talab 
want (need) n. 'kze 

wantonly ^a§dan 
war n. ^larb 6a 
war, holy jihad 
war, wage liarab 139.1 
war with each other tharab 
warble zakzak 
wardrobe chazant^it- 

warehouse hagil 13.1 
warm, be difl 
warm (of air etc) hami 
warm (water) sdochn 
warm (weather only) shob 
warm, become difi 127.2 
warmth dafa 
warn chattar 
warning tachteer 
warning cf. 16 
was, there cf § 71 
wart taloole 
wash v. rasal 113.1 
wash (dishes) jala 127.1 
wash, (ceremonial) v. rasal 
washerwoman rassale 
washing n. raseel 
waste (spend) baddar 
wasteful mbaddir 
waste-pipe kanayet il-mai 

watch V. sihir 114.1 
watch (clock) sa'a; sai'a 
watch-chain koost^k 
watch-maker sa^ati 162 
watchman h«ns 9; natoor 
water v. salja 127.1 
water n. mai; maiye; moiye 
water-bottle rarrafe r 
water-carrier sa^ka 
watercloset ddabe; mdbs- 
water-wheel na'oora 14R 
wave V. lolalj 
wave n. moje 
wax sham' 
wax, cobbler's zift 
we nahna; iljna § 8; ihn 
weak & adv. d'cef 178 
weak, be di'if 
weaken da"af 
weakness do^ocf 
wealth rina 
wealthy rani 
wear [hhve on) libis 
weary v. zihik 
weather faks 

weave hiyak 137.1 
weaver hiyak 165.3 
weaving room mahyake r 
web hiyake r 
wedding 'o'ors 5a 
wedge n. sfeen 
wee zarnoon 
weed n. zawan c 
week jo"bm'a 4b 
weep biki 127.2 
weigh wazan 121.1 zan 

weighed, let o. s. be ittazau 
weight 'iyar [145.3 

welcome v. t'ahhal 
welcome! marhaba 
welfare salih 13.1 chair 
well adj. & adv. mab§oot 

well n. beer 4 a 
well! ya tara 89.4 
well, exceedingly mleeh la 
achir daraje 
west rarb 175 
western rarbiye 175 
wet mablool 
wet, become ibtall 146 
wet, be made tballal 
what! ya tara 89.4 
what? 22 and R 
whatever shoo ma 
wheel doolab 14 
when lamma 
when? aimta 
whence? min wain 
whenever mata ma 
where matra^i ma 
where? la wain 
wherever hait 
whether ida 
which 22. 26. 189 
while n. mo'bdde 
while bainama 
whip ko'bibaj 169 
whirl V. laff 126.2 
whirlwind zoba'a 13.2 
whisper v. washwash 
whisper n. washwashe 
whistle V. gaffar 136.1 
white abyad 180.1 
white, become ibyadgl 149 
whither? la wain 
whiteness baya^ [126.2 
whiz wann 116.1 wazz 
who? meen 22. 23 
whole, entirely kafiyan 


wliole, on the lii wijili il- 

whose? la lueeu 23 

whosoever ineen mii kaii 

why? laish 24 

wick fteele 12 

Avicked kafir 179 

wide, be wisi' 122 

widen wassa' 

widow armale 156 

widower arnial 15(5 

wife mara 11 X 

wild (of person) hauiaji; 

wild (of animals, frnit) barri 

wilderness barrije 

wilfnl kasdan; 'amdan 

wiUv. biddll6R rAd 126.2 

will (command) wasiye 10 

win ribih 114.1; kisib 

wind Y. laff 116.1 

wind reeh 157; 168. 5b 

window sho^obbak 171 

windpipe raasoora r 

wine mbeed, nbeed 

wine-press ma'sara 

wing janflh 5.R2 

wink n. ramaz 

winnow darra 

winter shatawiye 162 

wipe masah 113.3 

wire shreet 

wise hakeem 178 

wish v.'bidd 116Brad 126.2 
tmanna; amar 113.5 

wish n. talab 

witch jnniye r 

with, bi; ma"; ^and: 'ind 62 

withdraw rajja" 

wither v. dibil 11-1.1 nishif 

withhold mana' 

witliin ti mo'bddet 

without ilia; bidoon; min 
'ada; bala 

witness, bear s^hihid 113.3 
witness u. shaheed 3 
woe! wail 89.3 
woman hobrme 
woman old 'ajooz 12 
woman, yo'ing sabiye 10 
womanly niswaniye 175 
womb dbm il-oolad 
wonder at t'ajjab min 142.1 
wonder n. 'ajeebe 12 
wonderful 'ajeeb 181.1 
wood hatab ; chashab 
woods hirsh 5b 
wool soof 183 
woollen gobfi; min §oof 183 
woollen stuff km ash 11 
word kilrae 6 & r 
work v. ishtaral 145.1 
work together tsharak 
work n. sho'brl 
woi-k bv the piece, give 
kawal 139.4 
worker sharreel 
working man -omil 9 
workshop manual 
world do'bnya 
worldly ddbnyawi 
worn out, be (suit) ihtara 
worse than akta' rain 96.2 
worship V. (eccl.) 'abad 
worship n. (eccl.) 'ib;ide 
worshipper 'abid pi. 'o'obbad 
worth n. & adj. keeme r 
worth, be siwi 130R 
worthless battal 176.1 
worthy mo'ostahikk 
worthy of, be istahakk 151 
wound V. 'akar; jarah 
wound n. jdbih 
wounded m'akwar 
wounded, be iniarah 144.1 
wrap up latt' 116.1 
wrapper (dress) rob 
wreatli ikleel 173 
wrestle batah 139 1 
wring out 'asar 

wrinkle ja^de r 
wrist mafsal 
write katab 113.5 [201 
writer m'allif 167.1 katib 
writing-hook daftar kitabe 
wrong n. darar 
wrong, be el-hakk 'ala 70 
wrong to S.O., do rilit hi 
hakk J- suff 
Yard (court) bosh 11 
yawn v. tawab 139.4 
yawning mtawabe r 
year sana 166 6; 175. 165R 
year, last 'amm owwal 
yearly sanawiye 175.175R1 
yearn ishtak 
yeast chameere r 
veil V. ja'ar 
yellow asfar 180. 1 
yellow, become isfarr 149 
yes cf. 71. 85 
yesterday embarib;imbarlia 
yet imbala 
yet (still) cf. 81 
yet, not lissa ma 
yield (produce) antaj 
yield (surrender) sallam 
yoke neer 4a 
yolk safar il-baid 
yonder rad 
young §ireer; fata 
your cf. 11 — 13 
yours cf. 15 

youth rlam 11; fata 11; 
shabb 11 
youth (opp. age) shabab; 
youthful sho'oboobi 
youtbfulness sho'oboobiye 
Zeal hamiye 10; reere 
zealot, zealous riyoor 
zephyr naseem c 
zigzag m''aikaj; mlcwwa 
zinc zeenko 
zodiac dairet el-brooj 
zone mautaka 

— 224 — 

Corrections and Additions. 

p. 2 /. 24 Add : a after a guttural or the letter r is pronounced like a 
in father; after k, s, or t it sounds like a combination of a and o, somewhat 
like the syllable awe pronounced very short. 

p. 3 I. 8 read 191 f. ^or 163 Add to § 3; The gutturals and the letter r 
prefer a as the following vowel, especially in the case of the fem. ending. 

p. 4 A 11 read: 190 for 191 Add to § 9: The fellaheen sometimes use 
the fem. forms for the 2nd and 3rd pers, plur: chin (- kin), and bin. 

p. o h 10 read achooh for cachooh /. 20 bta'ti or bta'i /. 21 bakara 
for bakara. 

p. 6 /. li delete is I. 14 read shaitna for schaitua I. IG add 1. before "a 
warning" /. 20 read iyaha for iyahah Add to the end of § 16 : 2. the 
accus. of the pron. p. g, iyaha I want her. in kau biddak iyah machloot ba'- 
malo. If you wish it mixed, I will do it. L 32 read fhiratha for fhimta. 

p. 7 Add to § 18 ; The letter is generally pronounced d although i. 
Delete: For the letter d etc. /. 27 read ro~ozlan for ro'bslan. 

p. 8 I. 26 Add after /, or as an exclamation cf. § 89 

p. 9 /. 20 read enho'om for enho^om 

p. 10 Add to § 83: '■'■Some of may also be rendered by akammin fol- 
lowed by the substantive in the singular: e.g. akammin bait inharak or inharakoo 
Some of the houses v^^r^ burnt". 

p. 11 /. 1 read "rendered". 

p. 12 add to § 41N: or tnainua; tnainko'bm 

p. 10 /. 7 tani for tani. 

p. 18 /. 20 delete ? 

p. 21 /. 1 read enough /. 22 read § 208 for § 209 I. 27 read kooll ma 
foi- kool ma. 

p. 22 /. 8 read § 210 for § 208 Add to § 83 In the same manner is 
used 'adam nought e.g. 'adam il-ikbool the refusal. 

p. 24 /. 31 delete with the proa, suffix. 

p. 25 /. 29 read chafeef for achaff. 

p. 27 Add to § 102 Remark: In speaking an i is often prefixed to the 
h of the Impf. especially after the conjunction w e.g. w^ibyakloo and they eat". 
Add to § 103: Verbs which have in the Impf. the vowels oo . . . do take in the 
Imp. as prefix do. I. 33 add iktil or before il^to'bl. 

p. 29 I. 29 read prick for prik 

p. 30 /. 7 rakad: add ''be still" /. 10 chabat: "'knock some one" /, 18 read 
lihik for lihik /. 19 read ridib for ridib 

p. .31 I. 23 Add 1 before "Verbs" I. 31 Add 2 before "Verbs" /. 31 
read bido"bkk for bido'ok 

p. 33 /. 8 read: Imperative for impf. 

p. So /. 12 delete: or '. 

p. 36 Add to § 125 after minjab; these participles are reaUy of the 
seventh Form. I. 32 read : to forget. 

p. 37 /. 30 read radabo for radaboo. 

p. 38 I. 12 read imp. for impf. 

p. 40. Add to § 136 : The prefix m of the participles of the derived forma 
should have as its proper vowel o"o; in conversation however, one more frequently 

— 225 — 

hears a prefixed, very short. /. The two forms e.g. moojarrah and imjarrab exist 
therefore by the side of rajarrab; cf. also § 142R. 6j' 143R. p. 41 / 1 read 
kattaf pick fruit. I. 19 ialias add straighten a thing. p. 42 /. 24 wadda* 
/. 28 read ya. Add malia fill and delete it on p. 41 /. 24. p. 43 insert 
before /. 11 bisamhoo 3. p. plural. / ;-'4 read liyan. p. 44 Add to § 142: tharrak 
Impf. bitharrak Imp. itl.iarrak (ui.) itharraki (f.) itharrakoo (pi.) Pres. f'art: 
uKibtharrik Past Part: nurotljarrak. p. 4(J / G read VI F for VII F. /. 9 read 
Imp. for Impf. 1. 10 ri^ad mo^otkatil. p. 47 I. 28 read be spoiled. p. 4.S /. 
28 read a for J.. p. 49 /. 1 read b for 2. p. 54 /. 2 tabtab to pat. I 28 
read een for eeni. p. 56 /. 17 read fdoclichar. p. 57 /. 23 read chiyat. p. 5S 
1. 27 Add 1 before \\'ords. p. (JO I. 18 read ho'bkne. p. 62 I. 14 read kafa§ 
for kafa /. 34 Add 2. before The following, p. 64 J. 14 read ramshe. p. 66 
/. (> read ayi. § 168. 13. 1. The words amr command and fakha fruit should 
exchange places. p. 6S /. 17 Note: read zambak. p. 69 /. 3 Take 'asfoor 
sparrow to § 172. /. 10 read infant's shoes. I. 21 read literai'y work. Delete 
footnote * * * and take the word jarooshe to § 168 14R. p. 70 /. 16 * yomi. 
p. 71 I. 22 read chatib. I. 24 read marloot formarboot. '■ 27 read mislim dark; 
midhin greasy. § 176N read bibla, hiblat. Last line read rachween for racg- 
ween. p. 74 I. 16 read "atshan p. 75 I. 24 read conjunction for conjugation, 
p. 77/1 read jam'eet for jam'iyit. I. 3 read If. in the case, . . . Add to § 
194: Sometimes however, as in class. Arabic, the adj. is put in the fern. sing, 
if the noun denotes other than rational beings. I. 19 read eh-srar. Add to § 195: 
As in the case of the adj. the verb', as also the pron. suffix, is sometimes 
put in the sing., if its subject denotes other than rational beings. p. 
78 /. 7 read something- for sometiug. /. 20 read jai read tabi^ p. 79 /. 26 
read raiheeu. p 81 § 2l3 delete both times Remark. p 82 after /. 8 
insert; 4. There exists also a Passive form which may be said to be a combina- 
tion of the VII. and VIII Forms: e.g. in'tana care for; inhtamal be borne; 
inhtarak be burnt; inchtasar be epitomized. § 216 delete the words Remark 
and add to No. 2: a similar shortening occurs in tlie case of kal, sar. e.g. 
kalli, sarlak, and of most other verbs of the same kind. p. 84 I. 25 read sahib 
'akl. p. 87 I- 4 read 'atshaui. /. 23 read hivvanat. I. 35 read shbeeui p. 
90 /. 12 read 'o'omrha. I. 19 read ish-shdbhra. I. 20 read btichsar. /. 25 read 'indi. 
I. 26 read Mndak. p. 91 /. 2 read salle. p. 92 I. 5 read mhandis. p. 93 /. 

14 read had for have. I. 23 read women; delete? in the Arabic. p. 94 /. 3 
read dow. /. 7 read es-sath for il-hram. I. 12 read 216 for 286. p. 96 /. 13 
read 'atshaneeu, p. 97 /. 4 read yikta'oo. I. 8 read sakainaho^on. I. 14 read 
them for her. /. 24 read tiyib. p. 98 /. 9 read at§6wwar. I. 24 read timsah. 
p. 99 I. 11 read shams. /. 26 read wait for cut. p. lOO I. 7 read jdbmal. I. 
10 read watchmaker's. /. 11 read take it there, it . . . /. 21 read karrosa. 
p. 101 /. 8 sho'ofnah, the h is the suff. 3 p. m. s. cf. § 17 b.— I. 9 read a'taitha. 
/. 10 read We for He. I. 13 read He for We. I. 20 read asta'jro. /. 29 read 
soormaito. p. 102 /. 5 read jibnalak. /. 18 read byishtirloo. p. 103 I. 14 delete 
(f.) I. 16 read irlitt /. 16/17 read ko~bsstak. /. 28 read Minimal. p. 104 /. 17 
add before bee: lash-sha'b. I. 20 read il for ii. p. 105 /. 15 As before the 
prefix b of the Impf. su also before n the prefix / is put cf. § 102 Cor. and Add. 
p. 106 /. 31 read byittalla'oo. p 107 1. 22 read these for the. /. 29 read 'as- 
foor. p. 108 last line read ismi't for ismi t. p. 112 /. 19 read Percentage for 
Precentage. p 114 I. 9 read hsabak. p. 115 I. 1 read hakyak for hakyak. p. 
116 I. 3l read id /brid; hada for h;'ida. p. 117 /. 4 read kal'a. p. 118 I. 31 read 
ras for ra^. p. 125 /. 7 read taffartui; I. 11. read hada^r-rajo'ol. I. 14 delete? 
p. 126 I. 8 read itshatshit; /. 5 read bitkazkiz for bitkzakiz I. 8 read itfarfaf. 
p. 127 I. 4 read bitowwil. p. 130 I. 4 read byi'tnoo for biy'tnoo. I 34 read isafir. 
p. 132 /. 5 read h§an. p. 133 I. 11 read wischa. p. 134 /. -o read btikdar 
hon. p. 135 /. 10 read sanadeekak. p. 137 I- 20 read w^i^s-freere. /. 26 
read tdbftdor. p. 140 /. 19 read and for and. p. 141 /. 4 read macaroni. I 

15 lead ihittoo. I. 20 read hamam. p. 142 I. 5 read akaddimlak. p. 143 I. 

— 226 — 

25 read Mrsbi. p. 144 /. 3 read kabbat. p. 145 /. 2 read m'iyan. p. 146 I. 

1 read yindwi^d-. I. 26 read il-6da. p. 147 I. 24 read tmazza'at. p. 149 I. 
3 read itdabbir. /. 19 r ad btitwassacb. I. 27 read byitvvakkafoo. p. 150 I. 24 read 
moone. p. 151 /. 8 read difficulty. 1. 15 read ^s-sreere. l. 19 read anye. 
p. 152 I. 29 read bilibbdbn. p. 153 I. 9 btihrikobn:btihrik-t-hdbn. The h of tbe 
suffixes is often assimilated cf. e. g. § 17 Parad. fliinita. p. 155 /. 35 read 
chiyatteesb. p. 157 I. 29 read ish-sbita. p. 159 I 22 read lailtak. p. 160 N. 

2 read to a workman. p. 162 /. 19 read or by your honour. By . . . p. 163 
/. 24 read ya'teek p. 164 I. 6 read jo'bm'a. p. 165 J. 37 read hatit. P- 166 
I. 32 read bakta' /. 40 read w^itmanna. p. 167 /. 34 read bikta' /. 68 read 
siyad. p. 168 I 1 read Inab. /. 29 read 'ala, /. 31 read til'at. p. 169 /. 
22 read 'addaito. p. 173 /. 11 read napoleon as present. p. 179 1. 12 read 
matboo' I. 30 read byil'ab. p. 186 I. 5 read jdommaiz. p. 189 add to "bear" 
5a. Add mosquito namoos 163. p. 190 add to stallion, before ahsne, plural, 
p. 191 add to ''fig" single fig kooz. Add to fruit fakha 13.1. Narcissus read 
en-nabi. p. 193 accident hadit 'atil accidental bi^§-gidfe accommodate ... kiyaf 
p. 194 armful 'ibt. p. 208 intention read maksood. p. 220 tin read 
tanak, delete zeenko. thirsty read 'afsban. p. 221 trouble ta";ib use n. read 
isti'mal p. YI I. 8 read possessive. 

In the course of printing, some diacritical points, especially under the 
letters d, t and s, as also tbe sign ', were broken off the type, but their absence 
will be easily recognized by the student. 

• '*j aT >♦ • 


— 225 — 

hears a prefixed, very short, i. The two forms e.g. mo'ojarrab and imjarrab exist 
therefore by the side of mjarrab; cf. also § 142R. § 143R. 

p. 41 I. 1 read ^attaf pick fruit. Last line: add after "or i" sometimes 
pronounced ai. 

p. 42 I. 24 wadda* /. 28 read ya for ya. Add^malla "fill" and delete it 
on p. 41 ^. 24. 

p. 43 inseit before I. 11 bisamlioo 3. p. plural. 

p. 44 Add to § 142: tliarrak Impf, bitliarrak Imp. itharrak(m) itharraki (f). 
itharrakoo (pi.) Pres. Part: mdbtharrik Past Part: mdotharrak. 

p. 46 I. 6 read VI F /"or VIIF. /. 9 read Imp. for Tmpf. I. 10 read mo^t- 
^atil for mootkatilt. 

p. 47 /. 28 read be spoiled for spoiled. 
p. 48 I. 28 read a for 1. 
p. 49 I. 1 read b for 2. 
p. 54 I, 2 tabtab "to pat". 
p. 56 I. 17 read fdbcbchar for fo"ochchar. 
p. 58 I. 27 Add 1 before "Words". 
p. 60 I. 18 read ho'okne for ho'okni. 
p. 62 I. 34 Add 2. before The following, 
p. 64 I. 14 read ramshe for ramshe. 
p. 66 I. 6 read ayi for aji. 

p. 69 I. 10 read infant's shoes I. 21 read literary work, 
p. 71 I. 22 read chatib for chatib /. 24 read mafloot for marboot 
I. 27 read mislim dark; midhin greasy. § 176N read hibla, hiblat. 

p. 77 I. 3 read If, in the case. . . . Add to § 194: Sometimes however, 
as in class. Arabic, the adj. is put in the fem. sing, if the noun denotes other 
than rational beings. Add to § 195; As in the case of the adj. the verb is 
sometimes put in the sing., if its subject denotes other than rational beings. 

p. 78 1. 20 read jai for jai. 

p. 81 § 213 delete both times "Remark". 

p. 82 after /. 8 insert: 4. There exists also a Passive form which may be 
said to be a combination of the VII. and VIII Forms: e. g. in'tana care for; 
inhtamal be borne; inhtarak be burnt; inchtagar be epitomized. § 21H delete the 
words "Remark" and add to No. 2: a similar shortening occurs in the case of kal, 
€ g. kalli, and of most other verbs of the same kind. 

p. 84 I. 25 read sahib 'akl 

p. 90 I. 12 read 'dbmrha for 'dbmrha /. 25 read 'indi for iudi I. 26 read 
""indak for indak. 

p. 91 /. 2 read salle for salle. 

p. 93 /. 23 read women for woman. 

p. 94 /. 12 read § 216 for 286. 

p. 97 I. 14 read them for her. 

p. 98 /. 24 read timsah for timsah. 

p. 99 /. 11 read shams for shams. /. 26 read wait for cut. 

p. 100 ^.11 read take it there, it . . . 

p. 101 /. 10 read We for He /. 13 read He for We. 

p. 102 /. 5 read jibnalak for joobnalak /. 18 read byishtiyloo for byisbtirlo. 

p. 103 /. 14 delete (f.) /. 16 read irlitt for irlitt ^.28 read 'ammal for ammal. 

— 228 — 

p. 104 /. 17 add before hee: lash-sha'^b. 

p. 107 /. 22 read these for the. 

p. 112 I. 19 read Percentage fo7- Precentage. 

p. 115 /. 1 read hakyak for hakyak. 

p. 118 I. 31 read ras for ra? 

p. 120 /. 5 read bitkazkiz for bitkzakiz. 

p. 130 I. 4 read byi'tnoo for biy'tnoo. 

p. 134 /. 5 read btikdar hon. 

p. 137 /. 20 read vv ^ig-greere. 

p. 141 I. 15 read ihittoo. 

p. 142 I. 5 read akaddiralak. 

p. 14(> /. 16 read chitmiye I. 26 read il-6da. 

p. 151 h 8 read difficulty /. 19 read a'lye for aaye. 

p. 157 /. 29 read ish-shita. 

p. 100 N. 2 read to a workman. 

p. 167 /. 68 read giyad. 

p. 108 /. 1 read 'inab 1. 29- read 'ala. 

p. 189 add to "bear" 5a. Add mosquito namoos 163. 

p. 190 add to stallion, before ah^sne, plural 

p. 191 add to "fig" single fig kooz Add to "fmit" fakha 13.1 Xaicis- 
Sns read en-nabi for en-nabi. 



DEC 1 6 1982 



LaArab.Gr Spoer, Hans Henry 

S7623111 and Haddad, E. N. 

Manual of Palestinean 
Arabic for self- instruc-